A new form of philosophizing known as ordinary language philosophy took root in England after the Second World War, promising a fresh start and a way out of long-standing dead-end philosophical debates. Pioneered by Wittgenstein, Austin, and others, OLP is now widely rumored, within mainstream analytic philosophy, to have been seriously discredited, and consequently its perspective is ignored. Avner Baz begs to differ. In When Words Are Called For, he shows how the prevailing arguments against OLP collapse under close scrutiny. All of them, he claims, presuppose one version or another of the very conception of word-meaning that OLP calls into question and takes to be responsible for many traditional philosophical difficulties. Worse, analytic philosophy itself has suffered as a result of its failure to take OLP's perspective seriously. Baz blames a neglect of OLP's insights for seemingly irresolvable disputes over the methodological relevance of "intuitions" in philosophy and for misunderstandings between contextualists and anti-contextualists (or "invariantists") in epistemology. Baz goes on to explore the deep affinities between Kant's work and OLP and suggests ways that OLP could be applied to other philosophically troublesome concepts. When Words Are Called For defends OLP not as a doctrine but as a form of practice that might provide a viable alternative to work currently carried out within mainstream analytic philosophy. Accordingly, Baz does not merely argue for OLP but, all the more convincingly, practices it in this eye-opening book.
Ever since Kant and Hegel, the notion of autonomy—the idea that we are beholden to no law except one we impose upon ourselves—has been considered the truest philosophical expression of human freedom. But could our commitment to autonomy, as Theodor Adorno asked, be related to the extreme evils that we have witnessed in modernity? In Autonomy after Auschwitz, Martin Shuster explores this difficult question with astonishing theoretical acumen, examining the precise ways autonomy can lead us down a path of evil and how it might be prevented from doing so. Shuster uncovers dangers in the notion of autonomy as it was originally conceived by Kant. Putting Adorno into dialogue with a range of European philosophers, notably Kant, Hegel, Horkheimer, and Habermas—as well as with a variety of contemporary Anglo-American thinkers such as Richard Rorty, Stanley Cavell, John McDowell, and Robert Pippin—he illuminates Adorno’s important revisions to this fraught concept and how his different understanding of autonomous agency, fully articulated, might open up new and positive social and political possibilities. Altogether, Autonomy after Auschwitz is a meditation on modern evil and human agency, one that demonstrates the tremendous ethical stakes at the heart of philosophy.
Avner Baz presents a critique of much of the work within mainstream analytic philosophy in the past five decades or so, and in particular of the recent debates within analytic philosophy concerning philosophical method. In the first part of The Crisis of Method Baz argues that what has come to be known as the philosophical 'method of cases' rests on substantive assumptions about language acquisition and use. In the second part of the book Baz challenges those assumptions, both philosophically and empirically, and presents and motivates a broadly pragmatist conception of language on which the method of cases as commonly practiced by both 'armchair' and 'experimental' philosophers is fundamentally misguided-more fundamentally misguided than even its staunchest critics have hitherto recognized.
Release on 2013-02-01 | by Constantine Sedikides,John Schopler,Chester A. Insko,Chester Insko
Author: Constantine Sedikides,John Schopler,Chester A. Insko,Chester Insko
Pubpsher: Psychology Press
Social psychology has maintained a keen interest over the years in issues related to intergroup behavior, such as ingroup favoritism and discrimination. The field has also been preoccupied with ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination. Intergroup contact has been offered as the main mechanism for prejudice and discrimination reduction. In the last 15 years, the social cognitive perspective has been applied to the study of intergroup relations. Theoretical advances have been made regarding such issues as the representation of information about ingroup and outgroup members, the structural properties of stereotypes, the relation between cognitive representation and judgment, and the ways in which cognition, effect, and motivation interactively influence the perception, judgment, and memory of ingroup and outgroup members. The first volume in this new series, this book seeks to bring the above two traditions together. Focusing on the interplay between cognition and behavior in intergroup settings, it addresses four general questions: * How does intergroup cognition (perceptions, judgments, and memories) influence intergroup behavior (ingroup favoritism and discrimination)? * How does intergroup behavior subsequently change intergroup cognition? * What is the mediational role of effect, motivational processes, and social context? * How effective can change in intergroup cognition be in altering intergroup behavior? This volume focuses not on a specific theory but rather on an approach. This approach is the interface between intergroup cognition and intergroup behavior. The various contributors are leading investigators in these areas and share the belief that the field has reached a level of maturity where it can start asking the hard questions regarding the complex and multifaceted ways in which intergroup cognition and behavior are related. The investigators do not just summarize their work. Instead, they connect aspects of their work to the theme of the volume and integrate their work with existing approaches in the relevant literature.
Release on 2014-02-17 | by Fabrizio Macagno,Douglas Walton
Author: Fabrizio Macagno,Douglas Walton
Pubpsher: Cambridge University Press
This book analyzes the uses of emotive language and redefinitions from pragmatic, dialectical, epistemic and rhetorical perspectives, investigating the relationship between emotions, persuasion and meaning, and focusing on the implicit dimension of the use of a word and its dialectical effects. It offers a method for evaluating the persuasive and manipulative uses of emotive language in ordinary and political discourse. Through the analysis of political speeches (including President Obama's Nobel Peace Prize address) and legal arguments, the book offers a systematic study of emotive language in argumentation, rhetoric, communication, political science and public speaking.
This accessible, hands-on text not only introduces students to the important topicsin historical linguistics but also shows them how to apply the methods described and how to thinkabout the issues; abundant examples and exercises allow students to focus on how to do historicallinguistics. Distinctive to this text is its integration of the standard topics with others nowconsidered important to the field, including syntactic change, grammaticalization, sociolinguisticcontributions to linguistic change, distant genetic relationships, areal linguistics, and linguisticprehistory. Examples are taken from a broad range of languages; those from the more familiarEnglish, French, German, and Spanish make the topics more accessible, while those fromnon-Indo-European languages show the depth and range of the concepts they illustrate.This secondedition features expanded explanations and examples as well as updates in light of recent work inlinguistics, including a defense of the family tree model, a response to recent claims on lexicaldiffusion/frequency, and a section on why languages diversify and spread.
Why is there such a striking difference between English spelling and English pronunciation? How did our seemingly relatively simple grammar rules develop? What are the origins of regional dialect, literary language, and everyday speech, and what do they have to do with you? Seth Lerer's Inventing English is a masterful, engaging history of the English language from the age of Beowulf to the rap of Eminem. Many have written about the evolution of our grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary, but only Lerer situates these developments in the larger history of English, America, and literature. Lerer begins in the seventh century with the poet Caedmon learning to sing what would become the earliest poem in English. He then looks at the medieval scribes and poets who gave shape to Middle English. He finds the traces of the Great Vowel Shift in the spelling choices of letter writers of the fifteenth century and explores the achievements of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of 1755 and The Oxford English Dictionary of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He describes the differences between English and American usage and, through the example of Mark Twain, the link between regional dialect and race, class, and gender. Finally, he muses on the ways in which contact with foreign languages, popular culture, advertising, the Internet, and e-mail continue to shape English for future generations. Each concise chapter illuminates a moment of invention-a time when people discovered a new form of expression or changed the way they spoke or wrote. In conclusion, Lerer wonders whether globalization and technology have turned English into a world language and reflects on what has been preserved and what has been lost. A unique blend of historical and personal narrative, Inventing English is the surprising tale of a language that is as dynamic as the people to whom it belongs.
English Common Core for 5th Grade is one of the most prominent English cores that students will go through. Students will learn how to properly use the English language with conjunctions, prepositions, injections and other basic fundamental tools. Students will also learn important things such as dissecting sentences and explaining the meaning of each individual word as well as the entire sentence put together. Sentence structure is a huge element in the English language, and in this common core, students will really learn how it works. Students will also learn how to put together stories and contrast characters and situations in English literature. The fifth grade common core is imperative to children's learning experience.