understanding computation

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Understanding Computation

Author : Tom Stuart
ISBN : 9781449330118
Genre : Computers
File Size : 68. 29 MB
Format : PDF
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This book is for programmers who are curious about programming languages and the theory of computation, especially those who don't have a formal background in mathematics or computer science. It's for those who are interested in the mind-expanding parts of computer science that deal with programs, languages, and machines, but are discouraged by the mathematical language that's often used to explain them. Instead of complex notation, the book uses working code to illustrate theoretical ideas and turn them into interactive experiments that readers can explore at their own pace.

A Computable Universe

Author : Hector Zenil
ISBN : 9789814447782
Genre : Computers
File Size : 39. 53 MB
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This volume, with a Foreword writer Sir Roger Penrose, discusses the foundations of computation in relation to nature. It focuses on two main questions: What is computation?How does nature compute? The contributors are world-renowned experts who have helped shape a cutting-edge computational understanding of the universe. They discuss computation in the world from a variety of perspectives, ranging from foundational concepts to pragmatic models to ontological conceptions and philosophical implications. The volume provides a state-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays, representing a field that assumes information and computation to be key in understanding and explaining the basic structure underpinning physical reality. It also includes a new edition of Konrad Zuse's “Calculating Space” (the MIT translation), and a panel discussion transcription on the topic, featuring worldwide experts in quantum mechanics, physics, cognition, computation and algorithmic complexity. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Alan M Turing — the inventor of universal computation, on the 100th anniversary of his birth, and is part of the Turing Centenary celebrations. Contents:Foreword (R Penrose)PrefaceAcknowledgementsIntroducing the Computable Universe (H Zenil)Historical, Philosophical & Foundational Aspects of Computation:Origins of Digital Computing: Alan Turing, Charles Babbage, & Ada Lovelace (D Swade)Generating, Solving and the Mathematics of Homo Sapiens. E Post's Views on Computation (L De Mol)Machines (R Turner)Effectiveness (N Dershowitz & E Falkovich)Axioms for Computability: Do They Allow a Proof of Church's Thesis? (W Sieg)The Mathematician's Bias — and the Return to Embodied Computation (S B Cooper)Intuitionistic Mathematics and Realizability in the Physical World (A Bauer)What is Computation? Actor Model versus Turing's Model (C Hewitt)Computation in Nature & the Real World:Reaction Systems: A Natural Computing Approach to the Functioning of Living Cells (A Ehrenfeucht, J Kleijn, M Koutny & G Rozenberg)Bacteria, Turing Machines and Hyperbolic Cellular Automata (M Margenstern)Computation and Communication in Unorganized Systems (C Teuscher)The Many Forms of Amorphous Computational Systems (J Wiedermann)Computing on Rings (G J Martínez, A Adamatzky & H V McIntosh)Life as Evolving Software (G J Chaitin)Computability and Algorithmic Complexity in Economics (K V Velupillai & S Zambelli)Blueprint for a Hypercomputer (F A Doria)Computation & Physics & the Physics of Computation:Information-Theoretic Teleodynamics in Natural and Artificial Systems (A F Beavers & C D Harrison)Discrete Theoretical Processes (DTP) (E Fredkin)The Fastest Way of Computing All Universes (J Schmidhuber)The Subjective Computable Universe (M Hutter)What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics? (S Wolfram)Universality, Turing Incompleteness and Observers (K Sutner)Algorithmic Causal Sets for a Computational Spacetime (T Bolognesi)The Computable Universe Hypothesis (M P Szudzik)The Universe is Lawless or “Pantôn chrêmatôn metron anthrôpon einai” (C S Calude, F W Meyerstein & A Salomaa)Is Feasibility in Physics Limited by Fantasy Alone? (C S Calude & K Svozil)The Quantum, Computation & Information:What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (D Deutsch)The Universe as Quantum Computer (S Lloyd)Quantum Speedup and Temporal Inequalities for Sequential Actions (M Żukowski)The Contextual Computer (A Cabello)A Gödel-Turing Perspective on Quantum States Indistinguishable from Inside (T Breuer)When Humans Do Compute Quantum (P Zizzi)Open Discussion Section:Open Discussion on A Computable Universe (A Bauer, T Bolognesi, A Cabello, C S Calude, L De Mol, F Doria, E Fredkin, C Hewitt, M Hutter, M Margenstern, K Svozil, M Szudzik, C Teuscher, S Wolfram & H Zenil)Live Panel Discussion (transcription):What is Computation? (How) Does Nature Compute? (C S Calude, G J Chaitin, E Fredkin, A J Leggett, R de Ruyter, T Toffoli & S Wolfram)Zuse's Calculating Space:Calculating Space (Rechnender Raum) (K Zuse)Afterword to Konrad Zuse's Calculating Space (A German & H Zenil) Readership: Graduate students who are specialized researchers in computer science, information theory, quantum theory and modern philosophy and the general public who are interested in these subject areas. Keywords:Digital Physics;Computational Universe;Digital Philosophy;Reality Theories of the Universe;Models of the World;Thring Computation RandomnessKey Features:The authors are all prominent researchersNo competing titlesState-of-the-art collection of technical papers and non-technical essays

Understanding Information And Computation

Author : Philip Tetlow
ISBN : 9781317004844
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57. 80 MB
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The World Wide Web is truly astounding. It has changed the way we interact, learn and innovate. It is the largest sociotechnical system humankind has created and is advancing at a pace that leaves most in awe. It is an unavoidable fact that the future of the world is now inextricably linked to the future of the Web. Almost every day it appears to change, to get better and increase its hold on us. For all this we are starting to see underlying stability emerge. The way that Web sites rank in terms of popularity, for example, appears to follow laws with which we are familiar. What is fascinating is that these laws were first discovered, not in fields like computer science or information technology, but in what we regard as more fundamental disciplines like biology, physics and mathematics. Consequently the Web, although synthetic at its surface, seems to be quite 'natural' deeper down, and one of the driving aims of the new field of Web Science is to discover how far down such ’naturalness’ goes. If the Web is natural to its core, that raises some fundamental questions. It forces us, for example, to ask if the central properties of the Web might be more elemental than the truths we cling to from our understandings of the physical world. In essence, it demands that we question the very nature of information. Understanding Information and Computation is about such questions and one possible route to potentially mind-blowing answers.

Computation And Visualization For Understanding Dynamics In Geographic Domains

Author : May Yuan
ISBN : 1420060333
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80. 40 MB
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The world is ever changing, and a comprehensive understanding of the world will not be achieved without theoretical and methodological advances to decode complex dynamics in human and environmental systems. Computation and Visualization for the Understanding of Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda synthesizes key ideas and issues discussed during the UCGIS hosted workshop on computation. It expands upon popular discussions to provide a comprehensive overview of geographic dynamics and new approaches to advance our understanding of geographic dynamics through computation and visualization. The text gives an overview of the state of research and how this research relates to intelligence analysis. It addresses broad issues and challenges in areas, such as spatiotemporal analysis and modeling, spatiotemporal visual analytics; spatiotemporal data mining, spatiotemporal reasoning, and spatiotemporal ontologies. The book also fuses suggestions from workshop participants with literature reviews to propose new research agendas and recommendations for future developments and collaboration. With full coverage on current developments and probably challenges, Computation and Visualization for the Understanding of Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda establishes a foundation to promote further studies in geographic dynamics and provides a springboard for the next big scientific and technological breakthrough.

From Understanding Computation To Understanding Neural Circuitry

Author : David Marr
ISBN : OCLC:3146851
Genre : Optical data processing
File Size : 23. 15 MB
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The CNS needs to be understood at four nearly independent levels of description: (1) that at which the nature of a computation is expressed; (2) that at which the algorithms that implement a computation are characterized; (3) that at which an algorithm is committed to particular mechanisms; and (4) that at which the mechanisms are realized in hardware. In general, the nature of a computation is determined by the problem to be solved, the mechanisms that are used depend upon the available hardware, and the particular algorithms chosen depend on the problem and on the available mechanisms. Examples are given of theories at each level. (Author).

Information And Computation

Author : Mark Semenovich Burgin
ISBN : 9789814295482
Genre : Automatic control
File Size : 70. 96 MB
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This volume provides a cutting-edge view of the world's leading authorities in fields where information and computation play a central role.

Computation And Logic In The Real World

Author : S. Barry Cooper
ISBN : 3540730001
Genre : Computers
File Size : 80. 11 MB
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CiE2007:ComputationandLogicintheRealWorld Siena,Italy,June18-23,2007 Computability in Europe (CiE) is an informal network of European scientists working on computability theory, including its foundations, technical devel- ment, and applications. Among the aims of the network is to advance our t- oretical understanding of what can and cannot be computed, by any means of computation. Its scienti'c vision is broad: computations may be performed with discrete or continuous data by all kinds of algorithms, programs, and - chines. Computations may be made by experimenting with any sort of physical system obeying the laws of a physical theory such as Newtonian mechanics, quantum theory, or relativity. Computations may be very general, depending upon the foundations of set theory; or very speci'c, using the combinatorics of ?nite structures. CiE also works on subjects intimately related to computation, especially theories of data and information, and methods for formal reasoning about computations. The sources of new ideas and methods include practical developments in areas such as neural networks, quantum computation, natural computation, molecular computation, computational learning. Applications are everywhere,especially, in algebra,analysisand geometry, or data types and p- gramming. Within CiE there is general recognition of the underlying relevance of computability to physics and a broad range of other sciences, providing as it does a basic analysis of the causal structure of dynamical systems.

Computational Approaches To Text Understanding

Author : Steen Jansen
ISBN : 8772891815
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 47. 9 MB
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A survey of current issues in Denmark.

Computational Intelligence For Multimedia Understanding

Author : Emanuele Salerno
ISBN : 9783642324369
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30. 47 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Workshop MUSCLE 2011 on Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding, organized by the ERCIM working group in Pisa, Italy on December 2011. The 18 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from over numerous submissions. The papers cover the following topics: multisensor systems, multimodal analysis, crossmodel data analysis and clustering, mixed-reality applications, activity and object detection and recognition, text and speech recognition, multimedia labelling, semantic annotation, and metadata, multimodal indexing and searching in very large data-bases; and case studies.

Quantum Computation And Quantum Information

Author : Michael E. Nielsen
ISBN : 0521635039
Genre : Computers
File Size : 78. 76 MB
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First-ever comprehensive introduction to the major new subject of quantum computing and quantum information.

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