the two princes of calabar an eighteenth century atlantic odyssey

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The Two Princes Of Calabar

Author : Randy J. Sparks
ISBN : 0674043898
Genre : History
File Size : 66. 18 MB
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In 1767, two "princes" of a ruling family in the port of Old Calabar, on the slave coast of Africa, were ambushed and captured by English slavers. The princes were themselves slave traders who were betrayed by African competitors--and so began their own extraordinary odyssey of enslavement. Their story, written in their own hand, survives as a rare firsthand account of the Atlantic slave experience. Sparks made the remarkable discovery of the princes' correspondence and has managed to reconstruct their adventures from it.

The Diary Of Antera Duke An Eighteenth Century African Slave Trader

Author : Stephen D. Behrendt
ISBN : 9780199888511
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 56 MB
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In his diary, Antera Duke (ca.1735-ca.1809) wrote the only surviving eyewitness account of the slave trade by an African merchant. A leader in late eighteenth-century Old Calabar, a cluster of Efik-speaking communities in the Cross River region, he resided in Duke Town, forty-five miles from the Atlantic Ocean in what is now southeast Nigeria. His diary, written in trade English from 1785 to 1788, is a candid account of daily life in an African community at the height of Calabar's overseas commerce. It provides valuable information on Old Calabar's economic activity both with other African businessmen and with European ship captains who arrived to trade for slaves, produce, and provisions. This new edition of Antera's diary, the first in fifty years, draws on the latest scholarship to place the diary in its historical context. Introductory essays set the stage for the Old Calabar of Antera Duke's lifetime, explore the range of trades, from slaves to produce, in which he rose to prominence, and follow Antera on trading missions across an extensive commercial hinterland. The essays trace the settlement and development of the towns that comprised Old Calabar and survey the community's social and political structure, rivalries among families, sacrifices of slaves, and witchcraft ordeals. This edition reproduces Antera's original trade-English diary with a translation into standard English on facing pages, along with extensive annotation. The Diary of Antera Duke furnishes a uniquely valuable source for the history of precolonial Nigeria and the Atlantic slave trade, and this new edition enriches our understanding of it.

Baltic Iron In The Atlantic World In The Eighteenth Century

Author : Chris Evans
ISBN : 9789004161535
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 8 MB
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This book looks at the one of the key commercial links between the Baltic and Atlantic worlds in the eighteenth century - the export of Swedish and Russian iron to Britain - and its role in the making of the modern world.

A Cultural History Of The Atlantic World 1250 1820

Author : John K. Thornton
ISBN : 9781139536196
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 73 MB
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A Cultural History of the Atlantic World, 1250–1820 explores the idea that strong links exist in the histories of Africa, Europe and North and South America. John K. Thornton provides a comprehensive overview of the history of the Atlantic Basin before 1830 by describing political, social and cultural interactions between the continents' inhabitants. He traces the backgrounds of the populations on these three continental landmasses brought into contact by European navigation. Thornton then examines the political and social implications of the encounters, tracing the origins of a variety of Atlantic societies and showing how new ways of eating, drinking, speaking and worshipping developed in the newly created Atlantic World. This book uses close readings of original sources to produce new interpretations of its subject.

The Atlantic In World History

Author : Karen Ordahl Kupperman
ISBN : 9780199986552
Genre : History
File Size : 63. 54 MB
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As Europeans began to move into the Atlantic in the late fifteenth century, first encountering islands and then two continents across the sea, they initiated a process that revolutionized the lives of people everywhere. American foods enriched their diets. Furs, precious metals, dyes, and many other products underwrote new luxury trades, and tobacco became the first consumer craze as the price plummeted with ever-enlarging production. Much of the technology that made new initiatives, such as sailing out of sight of land, possibly drew on Asian advances that came into Europe through North Africa. Sugar and other crops came along the same routes, and Europeans found American environments ideal for their cultivation. Leaders along the African coast controlled the developing trade with Europeans, and products from around the Atlantic entered African life. As American plantations were organized on an industrial scale, they became voracious consumers of labor. American Indians, European indentured servants, and enslaved Africans were all employed, and over time slavery became the predominant labor system in the plantation economies. American Indians adopted imported technologies and goods to enhance their own lives, but diseases endemic in the rest of the world to which Americans had no acquired immunity led to dramatic population decline in some areas. From Brazil to Canada, Indians withdrew into the interior, where they formed large and powerful new confederations. Atlantic exchange opened new possibilities. All around the ocean, states that had been marginal to the main centers in the continents' interiors now found themselves at the forefront of developing trades with the promise of wealth and power. European women and men whose prospects were circumscribed at home saw potential in emigration. Economic aspirations beckoned large numbers, but also, in the maelstrom following the Reformation, others sought the chance to worship as they saw fit. Many saw their hopes dashed, but some succeeded as they had desired. Ultimately, as people of African and European descent came to predominate in American populations, they broke political ties to Europe and reshaped transatlantic relationships.

Paths To Freedom

Author : Rosemary Brana-Shute
ISBN : 1570037744
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 41 MB
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Manumission--the act of freeing a slave while the institution of slavery continues--has received relatively little scholarly attention as compared to other aspects of slavery and emancipation. To address this gap, editors Rosemary Brana-Shute and Randy J. Sparks present a volume of essays that comprise the first-ever comparative study of manumission as it affected slave systems on both sides of the Atlantic. In this landmark volume, an international group of scholars consider the history and implications of manumission from the medieval period to the late nineteenth century as the phenomenon manifested itself in the Old World and the New. The contributors demonstrate that although the means of manumission varied greatly across the Atlantic world, in every instance the act served to reinforce the sovereign power structures inherent in the institution of slavery. In some societies only a master had the authority to manumit slaves, while in others the state might grant freedom or it might be purchased. Regardless of the source of manumission, the result was viewed by its society as a benevolent act intended to bind the freed slave to his or her former master through gratitude if no longer through direct ownership. The possibility of manumission worked to inspire faithful servitude among slaves while simultaneously solidifying the legitimacy of their ownership. The essayists compare the legacy of manumission in medieval Europe; the Jewish communities of Levant, Europe, and the New World; the Dutch, French, and British colonies; and the antebellum United States, while exploring wider patterns that extended beyond a single location or era.

On Jordan S Stormy Banks

Author : Randy J. Sparks
ISBN : 0820341479
Genre : History
File Size : 41. 32 MB
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On Jordan's Stormy Banks is a social history of southern evangelicalism from the late eighteenth century to the end of Reconstruction. By focusing on the three largest evangelical denominations in a single state - Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian - Randy J. Sparks charts the rise of evangelicals on the southern frontier and their remarkable increase in numbers, wealth, and influence throughout the remainder of the period. Beginning as a rebellious movement of the plain folk, evangelicals set themselves up to challenge the social hierarchy and even welcomed slaves into their congregations on terms approaching equality. Although evangelicals had largely abandoned formal opposition to slavery by the time the movement reached Mississippi, their relationship to the institution was complex and conflicted. Sparks demonstrates that the typical evangelical church was biracial and that the African-American influence in ritual and practice left an indelible imprint on southern religion. The egalitarian nature of these early churches created unique opportunities for women and blacks, and Sparks pays close attention to the important role of the female majority of church members. Similarly, evangelical practice and rhetoric was consciously democratic, linking the movement with republican virtue. By the 1830s, the evangelicals in Mississippi had so prospered that their churches grew from sects to major denominations. This shift to the establishment divided the traditionalists from the modernists within each denomination. As the evangelicals began to have a marked influence on southern society, they sought to perfect rather than abolish slavery, and egalitarian biracialism gave way to separateworship services, a practice that fueled the development of independent African-American churches following the Civil War. The orderly society that evangelicals labored to create - one organized around the patriarchal household - unraveled at the end of the Civil War, says Sparks. For whites, evangelicalism became entwined with the Religion of the Lost Cause; for African Americans, the Confederate defeat came as an answered prayer as they began to carve out an autonomous religious life for themselves that would prove to be the bedrock of the African-American community. This separation of Mississippi's major denominations along racial lines dramatically marked the end of the evangelical movement's first century.

Hurricane Katrina In Transatlantic Perspective

Author : Romain Huret
ISBN : 9780807158449
Genre : History
File Size : 24. 82 MB
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"There is no such thing as a 'natural' disaster," writes Romain Huret in his introduction to this multidisciplinary study of the events surrounding and the legacy of Hurricane Katrina. Though nature produced Katrina's rising waters and destructive winds, a vast array of manmade factors shaped the scope of the storm's impact as well as the local and national response to it. In Hurricane Katrina in Transatlantic Perspective, American and European scholars approach this infamous storm and its aftermath through a variety of disciplines, from music to geography to anthropology, creating a nuanced understanding of how society reacts to and later remembers times of disaster. Richard Campanella and Romain Huret examine the particular geographical and political mix that set the stage for Katrina's devastation, especially among the poorest populations of New Orleans and the Gulf South. Jean Kempf, James Boyden, Andrew Diamond, and Thomas Jessen Adams address the ideological biases and racial stereotypes that infused local and national commentary in the days and weeks after the storm. Finally, Bruce Raeburn, Sara Le Menestrel, Anne M. Lovell, and Randy J. Sparks explore the impact of this powerful tropical event on the city's institutions and cultural organizations. Hurricane Katrina in Transatlantic Perspective offers a profound and innovative collection of insights on one of the most significant environmental catastrophes in U.S. history, forcing us to examine the cultural actors that transformed a natural disaster into a humanitarian crisis.

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