Sugarcane grows in all tropical and subtropical countries. Sucrose as a commercial product is produced in many forms worldwide. Sugar was first manufactured from sugarcane in India, and its manufacture has spread from there throughout the world. The manufacture of sugar for human consumption has been characterized from time immemorial by the transformation of the collected juice of sugar bearing plants, after some kind of purification of the juice, to a concentrated solid or semi solid product that could be packed, kept in containers and which had a high degree of keep ability. The efficiency with which juice can be extracted from the cane is limited by the technology used. Sugarcane processing is focused on the production of cane sugar (sucrose) from sugarcane. The yield of sugar & Jaggery from sugar cane depends mostly on the quality of the cane and the efficiency of the extraction of juice. Other products of the processing include bagasse, molasses, and filter cake. Sugarcane is known to be a heavy consumer of synthetic fertilizers, irrigation water, micronutrients and organic carbon. Molasses is produced in two forms: inedible for humans (blackstrap) or as edible syrup. Blackstrap molasses is used primarily as an animal feed additive but also is used to produce ethanol, compressed yeast, citric acid, and rum. Edible molasses syrups are often blended with maple syrup, invert sugars, or corn syrup. Cleanliness is vital to the whole process of sugar manufacturing. The biological software is an important biotechnical input in sugarcane cultivation. The use of these products will encourage organic farming and sustainable agriculture. The book comprehensively deals with the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane and its by-products (Ethyl Alcohol, Ethyl Acetate, Acetic Anhydride, By Product of Alcohol, Press mud and Sugar Alcohols), together with the description of machinery, analysis of sugar syrup, molasses and many more. Some of the fundamentals of the book are improvement of sugar cane cultivation, manufacture of Gur (Jaggery), cane sugar refining: decolourization with absorbent, crystallization of juice, exhaustibility of molasses, colour of sugar cane juice, analysis of the syrup, massecuites and molasses bagasse and its uses, microprocessor based electronic instrumentation and control system for modernisation of the sugar industry, etc. Research scholars, professional students, scientists, new entrepreneurs, sugar technologists and present manufacturers will find valuable educational material and wider knowledge of the subject in this book. Comprehensive in scope, the book provides solutions that are directly applicable to the manufacturing technology of sugar from sugarcane plant.
Release on 2019-11-22 | by Fernando Santos,Sarita Rabelo,Paulo Eichler,Mario De Matos
Author: Fernando Santos,Sarita Rabelo,Paulo Eichler,Mario De Matos
Pubpsher: Academic Press
Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives provides the reader with a current view of the global scenario of sugarcane biorefinery, launching a new expectation on this important crop from a chemical, energy and sustainability point-of-view. The book explores the existing biorefinery platforms that can be used to convert sugarcane to new high value added products. It also addresses one of today's most controversial issues involving energy cane, in addition to the dilemma "sugar cane vs. food vs. the environment", adding even more value in a culture that is already a symbol of case study around the world. Focusing on the chemical composition of sugarcane, and the production and processes that optimize it for either agricultural or energy use, the book is designed to provide practical insights for current application and inspire the further exploration of options for balancing food and fuel demands. Presents the productive chain of sugarcane and its implications on food production and the environment Includes discussions on the evolution of the sustainable development of the sugar-energy sector Contextualizes and premises for the technological road mapping of energy-cane Provides information on new technologies in the sugar-energy sector
Release on 2013-03-09 | by A.J. Bent,E.B. Bennion,G.S.T. Bamford
Author: A.J. Bent,E.B. Bennion,G.S.T. Bamford
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering
The popularity of the 1973 fifth edition of The Technology of Cake Making has continued in many of the English-speaking countries throughout the world. This sixth edition has been comprehensively revised and brought up to date with new chapters on Cream, butter and milkfat products, Lactose, Yeast aeration, Emulsions and emulsifiers, Water activity and Reduced sugar Eggs and egg products, Baking fats, and lower fat goods. The chapters on Sugars, Chemical aeration, Nuts in confectionery, Chocolate, Pastries, Nutritional value and Packaging have been completely rewritten. The increased need for the continuous development of new products does not of necessity mean that new technology has to be constantly introduced. Many of the good old favourites may continue to be produced for many years and they form suitable 'bench marks' for new product development. The sixth edition introduces the use of relative density to replace specific volume as a measure of the amount of aeration in a cake batter (the use of relative density is in line with international agreement). Specific volume is kept as a measurement of baked product volume since the industry is comfortable with the concept that, subject to an upper limit, an increase in specific volume coincides with improvement in cake quality.
The Technology of Wafers and Waffles: Recipes, Product Development and Knowhow is the definitive reference book addressing new product development in wafers and waffles. As a companion manual to The Technology of Wafers and Waffles: Operational Aspects, it provides a varied selection of recipes for different types of wafers, waffles, and fillings. This book discusses flat and shaped wafers, ice cream cones, cups, wafer reels, wafer sticks, stroop waffles, and North American frozen waffles. A separate chapter focuses on recipe calculations for wafer and waffle batters, doughs, and fillings, which allows estimating output, cost, and main nutrient content. Finally, there is also an overview on the patent and food science literature on wafers and waffles in chronological order. Brings a selection of recipes for different types of wafers, waffles, and fillings, along with information on relevant patents and literature Includes a chapter on recipe calculations for wafer and waffle batters, doughs and fillings, along with a glossary of terms in wafer and waffle science and technology Explores recipe calculation for estimating cost and final composition in main nutrients for wafers and waffles Provides tables that help keep nutrient targets during new product development processes
The Technology of Wafers and Waffles: Operational Aspects is the definitive reference book on wafer and waffle technology and manufacture. It covers specific ingredient technology (including water quality, wheat flour, starches, dextrins, oils and fats) and delves extensively into the manufacturing elements and technological themes in wafer manufacturing, including no/low sugar wafers, hygroscopic wafers, fillings and enrobing. The book explains, in detail, operating procedures such as mixing, baking, filling, cooling, cutting and packaging for every type of wafer: flat and shaped wafers for making biscuits, ice cream cones, cups, wafer reels, wafer sticks (flute wafers) and biscuit wafers. It also explores the various types of European (Belgian) waffles and North American frozen waffles. Serves as a complete reference book on wafer and waffle technology and manufacturing, the first of its kind Covers specific ingredient technology such as water quality, wheat flour, starches, dextrins, oils and fats for wafer and waffles Explores wafer and waffle product types, development, ingredients, manufacturing and quality assurance Explains the scientific background of wafer and waffle baking Informs both artisan and industrial bakers about many related areas of bakery product manufacturing
Success can be planned and it can also be earned. The process of planning for success ought to start from the onset of the teenage with crystallising proper perceptions of success (P1), reviewing those regularly as the teenager grows and matures in body and mind and evaluating eqach (P1) with his potentials for success (P2)- what are his strengths and natural inclinations. Then, nearer the time the youngster is ready rto embark on a career, he has to track the prospects for success (P3) in the career or job market. Once the prospects are identified, the right time arrives to chalk out a step-by-step plan (P4). Therefore, once the plan is ready, performance (P5) according to the plan must begain.
In this wide-ranging study, Sucheta Mazumdar offers a new answer to the fundamental question of why China, universally acknowledged as one of the most developed economies in the world through the mid-eighteenth century, paused in this development process in the nineteenth. Focusing on cane-sugar production, domestic and international trade, technology, and the history of consumption for over a thousand years as a means of framing the larger questions, the author shows that the economy of late imperial China was not stagnant, nor was the state suppressing trade; indeed, China was integrated into the world market well before the Opium War. But clearly the trajectory of development did not transform the social organization of production or set in motion sustained economic growth.