How can human beings kill or brutalise multitudes of other human beings? Focusing particularly on genocide, Erwin Staub explores the psychology of group aggression.
Author: Ervin Staub
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
How can human beings kill or brutalise multitudes of other human beings? Focusing particularly on genocide, Erwin Staub explores the psychology of group aggression. He sketches a conceptual framework for the many influences on one group's desire to harm another and within this framework, considers four historical examples of genocide.
The aim of this book is to explain why people act in these ways and what can be done about it."—John Kekes The first part of this book is a detailed discussion of six horrible cases of evil: the Albigensian Crusade of about 1210; ...
Author: John Kekes
Publisher: Cornell University Press
"Evil is the most serious of our moral problems. All over the world cruelty, greed, prejudice, and fanaticism ruin the lives of countless victims. Outrage provokes outrage. Millions nurture seething hatred of real or imagined enemies, revealing savage and destructive tendencies in human nature. Understanding this challenges our optimistic illusions about the effectiveness of reason and morality in bettering human lives. But abandoning these illusions is vitally important because they are obstacles to countering the threat of evil. The aim of this book is to explain why people act in these ways and what can be done about it."—John Kekes The first part of this book is a detailed discussion of six horrible cases of evil: the Albigensian Crusade of about 1210; Robespierre's Terror of 1793–94; Franz Stangl, who commanded a Nazi death camp in 1943–44; the 1969 murders committed by Charles Manson and his "family"; the "dirty war" conducted by the Argentinean military dictatorship of the late 1970s; and the activities of a psychopath named John Allen, who recorded reminiscences in 1975. John Kekes includes these examples not out of sensationalism, but rather to underline the need to hold vividly in our minds just what evil is. The second part shows why, in Kekes's view, explanations of evil inspired by Christianity and the Enlightenment fail to account for these cases and then provides an original explanation of evil in general and of these instances of it in particular.
Staub also considers how circumstances influence people--both individuals and whole groups--and how they join with personal dispositions to determine whether people remain passive in the face of others' need or instead help others and ...
Author: Ervin Staub
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
In The Roots of Goodness and Resistance to Evil, Ervin Staub draws on his extensive experience in scholarship and intervention in real-world settings to illuminate the socializing experiences, education, and training that lead children and adults to become caring people and active bystanders who help others, and act to prevent violence and create caring societies. The book offers an excellent balance of Staub's important and influential recent articles and essays in the field and newly written chapters. It explores why we should help and not harm others. It offers wide-ranging examples and research about the roots of everyday helping and heroism, rescue in the Holocaust and elsewhere, overcoming trauma to become altruists, reconciliation in Rwanda and other ways of resisting evil, and more. Staub engages with ways to promote active bystandership in the service of preventing violence, helping people to heal from violence, and building caring societies. He explores the range of experiences that lead to active bystandership, including socialization by parents, teachers (and peers) in childhood, education, experiential learning, and public education through media. He examines what personal characteristics or dispositions result from such experiences, which in turn lead to caring and helping. Staub also considers how circumstances influence people--both individuals and whole groups--and how they join with personal dispositions to determine whether people remain passive in the face of others' need or instead help others and behave in morally courageous or even heroic ways. He considers how moral and caring values can be subverted by circumstances, and outlines ways to resist that possiblity. He also considers how past victimization and the resulting psychological woundedness, which can lead to "defensive violence" or hostility toward people and the world, may be transformed by other experiences, leading to "altruism born of suffering." The book draws on research and theory as well as work in applied settings. Ultimately this book will help readers explore how we can turn ourselves into active, helpful people and what we need to do to create peaceful and caring societies.
The untenable approach to nature that we see currently in the vast majority of
humanity has deep roots. It is an ... For our purpose, I call “evil” everything that
damages the underpinnings of life on Earth—all the abnormal, unnatural
Author: Pavel Pecina
Using examples from the animal kingdom, the author shows how the components of human behaviour, from altruism to xenofobia, from imitation to child upbringing, contribute to our view of the world and our impact on nature. He explains how they account for some of the environmental evils of our time, with suggestions as to how we may be able to alleviate them.The civilised, or rather, self-domesticated humans managed to do away with nearly all the usual factors of natural selection. It is likely that all dysfunctions of human behaviour and ecology are rooted in this fallacy.Still, there are many ways to rehabilitate both ourselves and the damage we have caused. The first step: a critical look at ourselves both as individuals and as a society, a frank self-assessment without double standards or rose-tinted glasses. Then learn from our mistakes and faults, forswear our crimes and attempt to atone for them.
A hard greenish shell studded with sharp spines, a cluster of busy, scuttling, claw
-like roots, delicate tendrils that groped and fluttered, a thick hairy stem, but
nothing anywhere that looked like eyes or a mouth. Behind her one of the
Author: Philip Reeve
Publisher: Penguin UK
Category: Juvenile Fiction
When the Fourth Doctor takes Leela to visit an immense tree space station known as the Heligan Structure, little do they know that the tree has been asleep for centuries, dreaming of vengeance against a man in a blue box ... As the tree awakes, the Time Lord and his companion soon discover why they are such unwelcome guests. Author Philip Reeve puts his own unique spin on the Doctor, his terrifying alien enemies and time-travelling adventures.