Release on 2006-04-11 | by Charles R. Sterling,Rodney D. Adam
Giardia, Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora
Author: Charles R. Sterling,Rodney D. Adam
Giardia duodenalis (=G. lamblia), Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis are more than just a mouthful for most who might encounter them. These protozoan parasitic agents contribute significantly to the staggering caseload of diarrheal disease morbidity encountered in developing world nations. Compounding the issue of their mere presence is the fact that standard ova and parasite exams frequently do not detect these infections. Detectable stages may be shed intermittently or require specialized staining procedures. Added to this is the often large number of asymptomatic carriers who serve as reservoirs for infecting others. These parasites are also not strangers to more developed nations, having responsibility for both small and large-scale disease outbreaks. In such settings they may be even more difficult to detect simply because they are frequently overlooked in the grand scheme of disease causing possibilities. They share common features; all are Protozoa, all possess trophic stages that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, all have the ability to produce disease and in some instances death, and all produce environmentally stable cysts or oocysts, which ensure their transmissibility. In other ways, these organisms are profoundly different. Giardia is a flagellate that inhabits the gut lumen in close association with enterocytes. Entamoeba is an amoeba that preferentially inhabits the mucosal region of the gut lumen, but which may, under certain circumstances, become invasive. Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are obligate intracellular coccidians, each taking up a unique niche within their respective host enterocytes.
Release on 1993-02-01 | by National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Wastewater Management for Coastal Urban Areas
Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Wastewater Management for Coastal Urban Areas
Pubpsher: National Academies Press
Close to one-half of all Americans live in coastal counties. The resulting flood of wastewater, stormwater, and pollutants discharged into coastal waters is a major concern. This book offers a well-delineated approach to integrated coastal management beginning with wastewater and stormwater control. The committee presents an overview of current management practices and problems. The core of the volume is a detailed model for integrated coastal management, offering basic principles and methods, a direction for moving from general concerns to day-to-day activities, specific steps from goal setting through monitoring performance, and a base of scientific and technical information. Success stories from the Chesapeake and Santa Monica bays are included. The volume discusses potential barriers to integrated coastal management and how they may be overcome and suggests steps for introducing this concept into current programs and legislation. This practical volume will be important to anyone concerned about management of coastal waters: policymakers, resource and municipal managers, environmental professionals, concerned community groups, and researchers, as well as faculty and students in environmental studies.
This timely volume examines the work of the National Estuary Program, the prominent federally-funded initiative dealing with pollution and other anthropogenic impacts on estuarine ecosystems and the management plans necessary to ensure that these invaluable natural treasures remain healthy and productive for future generations. Estuary Restoration and Maintenance sets into clear perspective the state of America's estuarine waters, the effects of human development in watersheds, and the impacts of pollution and anthropogenic activities on living resources and habitats in these critically important coastal systems. Effective management and protection of estuarine environments Edited by a leading estuarine scientist, the book focuses on the technical and management issues involved in National Estuary Program sites across the United States-Long Island Sound, Delaware Bay, Galveston Bay, and San Francisco Bay. Each case study explains and assesses the following critical issues: -a historical description of the priority problems -status and trends of water quality, habitat conditions, natural resources and the uses of the estuary -human impacts on water quality and habitats, natural resources and the uses of the estuary -the links between pollutant loadings and watershed development, natural resources and the uses of the estuary -the identification of priority problems and their cause and effect, -management plans to ensure ecological integrity of the estuary Estuary Restoration and Maintenance covers the gamut of issues, from the technical assessment of problems to management action plans for the improvement of the environmental quality of estuaries. Features
Release on 2014-02-10 | by Bhushan Kumar,Somesh Gupta
Author: Bhushan Kumar,Somesh Gupta
Pubpsher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Covers all aspects (historical, epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, preventative, public health and medico-legal) of STIs in complete detail with a special emphasis on STIs in special groups—migrants, homosexuals, and sexually abused. Covers basic and laboratory sciences extensively to blend with the basics required by the clinician for proper understanding of the disease process. Clinical photographs, illustrations, photographs of specimens and cultures, histopathology, flow charts and line diagrams are given extensively throughout the text to make relevant clinical situation self-explanatory. Has very useful and practical information for even the clinician in the periphery, where the investigative component is either non-existent or very basic and many new drugs are not available or unaffordable. Management of HIV in adults and children in resource-poor countries has been covered extensively along with syndromic management of STIs. This enables a physician to choose from approaches in a particular situation depending upon the available means—laboratory or therapeutic. Covers sexual dysfunction in both men and women and the basics of human sexual behavior and sexual health. Section Editors and Contributors from all continents of the world have made this a truly global reference book. It is a useful reference text for epidemiologists, public health experts, clinicians, microbiologists, health workers, social organizations and counselors working in the field of STIs, sexual health, and HIV.
Release on 2009-01-01 | by Gordon Charles Cook,Alimuddin Zumla
Author: Gordon Charles Cook,Alimuddin Zumla
Pubpsher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Providing the latest coverage on emerging and re-emerging diseases from around the world, such as tuberculosis and malaria, this updated guide contains boxes and tables that highlight key information on current therapies. This edition includes online access for more information.
This well-referenced, inquiry-driven text presents an up-to-date and comprehensive understanding of the emerging field of environmental microbiology. Coherent and comprehensive treatment of the dynamic, emerging field of environmental microbiology Emphasis on real-world habitats and selective pressures experienced by naturally occurring microorganisms Case studies and “Science and the Citizen” features relate issues in the public’s mind to the underlying science Unique emphasis on current methodologies and strategies for conducting environmental microbiological research, including methods, logic, and data interpretation
Release on 2011-06-08 | by Charles Hagedorn,Anicet R. Blanch,Valerie J. Harwood
Author: Charles Hagedorn,Anicet R. Blanch,Valerie J. Harwood
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
Understanding the origin of fecal pollution is essential in assessing potential health risks as well as for determining the actions necessary to remediate the quality of waters contaminated by fecal matter. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) has emerged as a field that has evolved and diversified rapidly since the first approaches were described only a decade ago. In response to the emergence of MST, there have been three large multi-laboratory method comparison studies (two in the US and one in Europe), plus numerous workshops, book chapters, and review articles dedicated to synthesizing information on the topic. Furthermore, a federal (USEPA) guide document describing the uses and limitations of MST methods was published in 2005, and a book dedicated to MST as an emerging issue in food safety was published in 2007. These documents provide a collective body of literature on MST that is both conflicting and complementary, often repetitious, and difficult to condense and interpret. In addition, it does not reflect the current diversity of MST approaches with different organisms, newer methodologies such as quantitative PCR, and anthropogenic chemicals, nor does it embrace the scope of MST research being conducted around the world. The three editors of the book, all with extensive MST expertise, have developed chapters and invited authors who reflect the rich diversity and truly international scope of MST. The unifying theme throughout the book is the design of more standardized approaches to MST that include performance criteria (regardless of method or organism), plus recommendations for field study design and MST implementation. The editors intend that this book will serve as a valuable reference for all those who are involved with
This clinically-oriented text focuses on the diagnostic protocols and treatment strategies with which physicians must be familiar when managing infectious disease patients. Informative algorithms, tables, and high-quality color photographs supplement many of the chapters in this conveniently-sized volume. The orientation of the volume is multi-faceted: in addition to the traditional organization of organ system and pathogen-related information, this text includes specific sections on the susceptible host (with individual chapters on the diabetic, the elderly, the injection drug user, and the neonate), travel-related infections, nosocomial infections, infections related to surgery and trauma, and bioterrorism. Informative algorithms, tables, and high-quality color photographs supplement many of the chapters. The convenient size of this book places it between the available encyclopedic tomes and the small pocket guides, making it a comprehensive but user-friendly and practical reference for the practising clinician.
Release on 2009-12-24 | by Stephen J. Ettinger,Edward C. Feldman
Author: Stephen J. Ettinger,Edward C. Feldman
Pubpsher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Now in its 7th edition, this popular, must-have text remains the only encyclopedic resource for veterinary internal medical problems. The internationally acclaimed "gold standard" offers unparalleled coverage of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting dogs and cats, as well as the latest information on the genome, clinical genomics, euthanasia, innocent heart murmurs, hyperbaric medicine, home prepared and raw diets, obesity, botulism, artificial pacing of the heart, cancer vaccines, and more. The 7th edition combines the convenience of a two-volume printed textbook with the enhanced functionality of an Expert Consult website that enables you to electronically search your entire book and study more efficiently. With instant access to the most reliable information available, you’ll always be at the forefront of veterinary care! Fully searchable online text provides fast, easy access to the most reliable information in the field. More than 150 clinical algorithms throughout the text aid in disease-identification and decision-making. Expanded online chapter content enhances your understanding through additional text, illustrations, tables, and boxes. Hyperlinked client information sheets streamline reference of specific conditions and enhance communication with clients. Extensive online reference list directs you to full-text PubMed abstracts for additional research. Thoroughly updated and expanded content, including 90 new chapters, addresses the latest developments across the full spectrum of small animal care. Companion Expert Consult website enhances your learning experience with the ability to search the entire electronic text instantly for easy reference. Expert Consult also gives you instant access to: More than 150 procedural videos that guide you step-by-step through essential procedures. Audio files that help you identify heart abnormalities by their sound.