"Reasoning" is defined as: "The act, process or art of exercising the faculty of reason; the act or faculty of employing reason in argument; argumentation, ratiocination; reasoning power; disputation, discussion, argumentation." Stewart says: "The word reason itself is far from being precise in its meaning. In common and popular discourse it denotes that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends." By the employment of the reasoning faculties of the mind we compare objects presented to the mind as percepts or concepts, taking up the "raw materials" of thought and weaving them into more complex and elaborate mental fabrics which we call abstract and general ideas of truth. Brooks says: "It is the thinking power of the mind; the faculty which gives us what has been called thought-knowledge, in distinction from sense-knowledge. It may be regarded as the mental architect among the faculties; it transforms the material furnished by the senses ... into new products, and thus builds up the temples of science and philosophy." The last-mentioned authority adds: "Its products are twofold, ideas and thoughts. An idea is a mental product which when expressed in words does not give a proposition; a thought is a mental product which embraces the relation of two or more ideas. The ideas of the understanding are of two general classes; abstract ideas and general ideas. The thoughts are also of two general classes; those pertaining to contingent truth and those pertaining to necessary truth. In contingent truth, we have facts, or immediate judgments, and general truths including laws and causes, derived from particular facts; in necessary truth we have axioms, or self-evident truths, and the truths derived from them by reasoning, called theorems." In inviting you to consider the processes of reasoning, we are irresistibly reminded of the old story of one of Moliere's plays in which one of the characters expresses surprise on learning that he "had been talking prose for forty years without knowing it." As Jevons says in mentioning this: "Ninety-nine people out of a hundred might be equally surprised on hearing that they had been converting propositions, syllogizing, falling into paralogisms, framing hypotheses and making classifications with genera and species. If asked whether they were logicians, they would probably answer, No! They would be partly right; for I believe that a large number even of educated persons have no clear idea of what logic is. Yet, in a certain way, every one must have been a logician since he began to speak."
An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition
Author: David Kelley
Pubpsher: W. W. Norton & Company
Students learn logic by practicing it—by working through problems, analyzing existing arguments, and constructing their own arguments in plain language and symbolic notation. The Art of Reasoning not only introduces the principles of critical thinking and logic in a clear, accessible, and logical manner—thus practicing what it preaches—but it also provides ample opportunity for students to hone their skills and master course content.
Emotions are powerful. In newspaper headlines and on social media, they have become the primary way of understanding the world. But strong feelings make it more difficult to see the reality behind the rhetoric. In The Art of Logic, Eugenia Cheng shows how mathematical logic can help us see things more clearly - and know when politicians and companies are trying to mislead us. First Cheng explains how to use black-and-white logic to illuminate the world around us, giving us new insight into thorny political questions like public healthcare, Black Lives Matter and Brexit. Then she explains how logic and emotions, used side-by-side, can help us not only to be more rational individuals, but also to live more thoughtfully. Clear-sighted, revelatory and filled with useful real-life examples of logic and illogic at work, The Art of Logic is an essential guide to decoding modern life.
Improve Your Logic, Think More Critically, And Use Proven Systems To Solve Your Problems - Strategic Planning For Everyday Life
Author: Steven Schuster
Would you like to have better solutions to your problems? Struggling to understand why things went wrong when you did everything right? The Art Of Thinking In Systems can help you with these problems. You think systems thinking is for politicians, and big company CEO's? Let me tell you this: a small business is a system, your class at school is a system, your family is a system. You are the element of larger systems - your town, your country, the world. These systems have a different dynamic. The more you know about their nature, the more optimal solutions you'll find to problems related to them. Systems thinking helps you see beyond simple connections, and find strategic solutions considering every actor influencing your problem. The Art Of Thinking In Systems presents the fundamental system archetypes, models, and methods with an application to real life. Know how to use systems thinking at work, in your business, in your relationship, friendships. The book also helps you to see through the hidden pathways of contemporary politics, economics, and education changes. Systems thinking opens new and exciting ways to re-invigorate your world view. It enriches your critical thinking skill, analyzing ability, clears your vision, makes you more logical and rational - just to mention a few benefits. Systems thinking's aim is not to overcomplicate your thoughts but to find better solutions to your problems. Some things in life can't be fixed with a simple "you did this so I did that" thinking. By applying conventional thinking to complex problems, we often perpetuate the very problems we try so hard to solve. Learn to think differently to get different results. -Learn about the main elements of systems thinking. -How to apply the best systems thinking ideas, models, and frameworks in your life? -What are the biggest system errors, how to detect and fix them? -How can you improve your romantic relationship with systems thinking? Over the past decades, systems thinking gained an eloquent position in science and research. Complexity, organizational pathways, networks gained more importance in our interconnected world. Just like wars are not fought with two armies standing in opposite of each other on an opened field, the answers to personal problems are more compounded, as well. -Improve your social life understanding the systemic aspects of social networks. -Useful tips how to fix financial fallouts in your business. -See through the systems of health care, education, politics, and global economics. The Art Of Thinking In Systems presents global systems theory with real life examples making it easily understandable and applicable. This book is not for Wall Street analysts but for everyday people who wish to understand their world better and make better decisions in their lives. You will be able to define your problems more accurately, design solutions more correctly, put together strategic plans, and understand the world - and your place in it - in its chaotic complexity.
Release on 2011-01-01 | by George Rainbolt,Sandra Dwyer
Author: George Rainbolt,Sandra Dwyer
Pubpsher: Cengage Learning
With a complete, approachable presentation, CRITICAL THINKING: THE ART OF ARGUMENT is an accessible yet rigorous introduction to critical thinking. The text emphasizes immediate application of critical thinking in students lives and helps students apply the skills they are studying. The relevance of these skills is shown throughout the text by highlighting the advantages of basing one’s decisions on a thoughtful understanding of arguments and presenting the overarching commonalities across arguments. With its conversational writing style and carefully selected examples, the book employs a consistent and unified treatment of logical form and an innovative semiformal method of standardizing arguments that illustrates the concept of logical form while maintaining a visible connection to ordinary speech. Without sacrificing accuracy or detail, the authors have clearly presented the material with appropriate study tools and exercises that emphasize application rather than memorization. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Students learn logic by practicing it by working through problems, analyzing existing arguments, and constructing their own arguments in plain language and symbolic notation. The Art of Reasoning not only introduces the principles of critical thinking and logic in a clear, accessible, and logical manner thus practicing what it preaches but it also provides ample opportunity for students to hone their skills and master course content.