Release on 1992-08-12 | by Franz Schmalhofer,Gerhard Strube
First Joint Workshop, Kaiserslautern, Germany, February 21-22,1991. Proceedings
Author: Franz Schmalhofer,Gerhard Strube
Pubpsher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book has its source in the question of whether any knowledge engineering tools can be applied or analyzed in cognition research and what insights and methods of cognitive science might be relevant for knowledge engineers. It presents the proceedings of a workshop organized by the Special Interest Groups Cognition and Knowledge Engineering of the German Society for Informatics, held in February 1992 in Kaiserslautern. The book is structured into three parts. The first part contrasts work in knowledge engineering with approaches from the side of the "soft sciences". The second part deals with case-based approaches in expert systems. Cognition research and the cognitive adequacy of expert systems are discussed in the third part. Contributions from Canada, England, France, Switzerland, and the USA demonstrate how knowledge engineering and cognitive science are woven together internationally.
Release on 2018-06-16 | by Mamta Mittal,Valentina E. Balas,Lalit Mohan Goyal,Raghvendra Kumar
Author: Mamta Mittal,Valentina E. Balas,Lalit Mohan Goyal,Raghvendra Kumar
The book describes the emergence of big data technologies and the role of Spark in the entire big data stack. It compares Spark and Hadoop and identifies the shortcomings of Hadoop that have been overcome by Spark. The book mainly focuses on the in-depth architecture of Spark and our understanding of Spark RDDs and how RDD complements big data’s immutable nature, and solves it with lazy evaluation, cacheable and type inference. It also addresses advanced topics in Spark, starting with the basics of Scala and the core Spark framework, and exploring Spark data frames, machine learning using Mllib, graph analytics using Graph X and real-time processing with Apache Kafka, AWS Kenisis, and Azure Event Hub. It then goes on to investigate Spark using PySpark and R. Focusing on the current big data stack, the book examines the interaction with current big data tools, with Spark being the core processing layer for all types of data. The book is intended for data engineers and scientists working on massive datasets and big data technologies in the cloud. In addition to industry professionals, it is helpful for aspiring data processing professionals and students working in big data processing and cloud computing environments.
The evaluation finds that the content of the World Bank s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) is largely relevant for growth and poverty reduction in the sense that it maps well with the determinants of growth and poverty reduction identified in the economics literature. However, some CPIA criteria need to be revised (in particular trade and finance), and one needs to be added (assessment of disadvantaged socio-economic groups). Second, the evaluation finds that the CPIA ratings are in general reliable and correlate well with similar indicators. The World Bank s internal review process helps guard against potential biases in having Bank staff rate countries on which their work programs depend. The CPIA ratings are found to correlate better with similar indicators for middle income countries than for low income countries. This could be because there is more information available on middle income countries, which increases the likelihood of different institutions having similar assessments on them. This could also be because the CPIA rating exercise takes into account the stage of development, which is more pertinent for low income countries, and which also subject the ratings of those countries to more judgment in an exercise that is already centered on staff judgment.
A Study of Primary Education in Uttar Pradesh, India
Author: Abhijit Banerjee
Pubpsher: World Bank Publications
Category: Advertising campaigns
"There is a growing belief in development policy circles that participation by local communities in basic service delivery can promote development outcomes. A central plank of public policy for improving primary education services in India is the participation of village education committees (VECs), consisting of village government leaders, parents, and teachers. The authors report findings from a survey in the state of Uttar Pradesh, of public schools, households, and VEC members, on the status of education services and the extent of community participation in the public delivery of education services. They find that parents do not know that a VEC exists, sometimes even when they are supposed to be members of it; VEC members are unaware of even key roles they are empowered to play in education services; and public participation in improving education is negligible, and correspondingly, people's ranking of education on a list of village priorities is low. Large numbers of children in the villages have not acquired basic competency in reading, writing, and arithmetic. Yet parents, teachers, and VEC members seem not to be fully aware of the scale of the problem, and seem not to have given much thought to the role of public agencies in improving outcomes. Learning failures coexist with public apathy to improving it through public action. Can local participation be sparked through grassroots campaigns that inform communities about the VEC and its role in local service delivery? Can such local participation actually affect learning outcomes, and can any impact be sustained? The authors describe information and advocacy campaigns that have been experimentally implemented to address some of the problems with local participation, and future research plans to evaluate their impact. "--World Bank web site.
Release on 2015-03-31 | by Edward A. Hill, Jr.,Anita C. Gonzalez
Literacy Strategies & Supports for Out-of-School Time Spaces
Author: Edward A. Hill, Jr.,Anita C. Gonzalez
Pubpsher: The Ohio State University
Research has demonstrated that many young learners lose knowledge gained during the academic school year over the summer break. There are efforts to address this issue through “out of school time” (OST) programming. From summer camps to after school programs to home and community organizations, those working with K-12 children in these areas are eager to respond to the academic needs of the youth they serve. There is a clear gap between available supports and information needed by OST educators to appropriately address the need of young learners to sustain literacy gains. SPARK: Literacy Strategies and Supports for Out-of- School Time Spaces offers best practices and strategies from the academic literacy field and are described with examples specifically for implementation outside of the school classroom. The information in each chapter has been carefully written to guide the target audience as they work to link out-of-school time education and in-school literacy. This book also offers information on literature for children and youth and multiple free online supports.
Essay from the year 2011 in the subject English - Literature, Works, grade: 100, , language: English, abstract: The Last Song is written by #1 New York Times Bestselling author Nicholas Sparks and released on September 8, 2009 by Grand Central Publishing . Also it was the number one on the weekly bestseller chart of New York Times Best Sellers List on September 18, 2009, and many reviews were written about The Last Song. Besides them, its new movie has been started to play on the cinemas in the U.S.A. since March 31, 2010, so this book is so popular and remarkable, because the characters’ behaviours and qualities are created uniquely, the book really impacts on our lives, and some religious informations and sacred books are related with the characters’ situations and the events in the book. First of all, the writer creates the characters and gives them some behaviours uniquely. Firstly , the change in Ronnie from a stubborn girl to a mature young lady makes the book more remarkable and special. For example, the novel states that “It was the first time since she’d been here that she’d spoken to him without a hint of anger or frustration. “ (pg.104) (...) Another reason why this book is remarkable is that the writer really impacts on our lives. First of all, this novel teaches us that there are significant moments that we mustn’t miss them and mustn’t regret what we miss. One example of this is “I was so mean to him. I quit the piano! I blamed him for everything, and I didn’t say more than a few words to him for three years! Three years! And I can’t get those years back. But maybe if I hadn’t been so angry, he might not have gotten sick. Maybe I caused that extra... stress that did all this. Maybe it was me!”(pg. 321) (...) Finally, some religious informations and sacred books are related with the characters’ situations and the events in the book appropriately. Firstly, in this novel there are things about presence of God, praying and hope. The novel states that “(...)Never forget that God is your friend. (...)He longs to hear what’s been happening in your life. Good or bad, whether it’s been full of sorrow or anger, and even when you’re questioning why terrible things have to happen. So I talk with him.” (pg.165) (...) As a final word, the characters’ behaviours, situations and creations are unique, and the book really has an effect on our lives ,and using religious connections make the book more remarkable. (...) There are also journal entries and vocabulary.
Release on 2000-01-01 | by International Monetary Fund
Author: International Monetary Fund
Pubpsher: International Monetary Fund
Category: Business & Economics
The leaders of the Group of Seven and Group of Eight countries held summit meetings in Okinawa, Japan, on July 21–23. Two statements were issued at the meetings: the first, on July 21, by the leaders of the Group of Seven countries, comprising Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States; and the second, on July 23, by the leaders of the Group of Eight countries (Group of Seven plus Russia). Excerpts from the statement of the Group of Seven follow (see page 245 for an excerpt from the Group of Eight statement).
Wonder what's in a word? Reading for Every Child: Vocabulary benefits students in grade 1 through fun, flexible, hands-on activities that help students learn and practice grade-appropriate vocabulary words and concepts. This 80-page book uses research-based methods and includes enrichment activities, word play and puzzles, and teacher resource pages.