New Materials for Thermoelectric Applications: Theory and Experiment

New Materials for Thermoelectric Applications: Theory and Experiment

Thermoelectric devices could play an important role in making efficient use of our energy resources but their efficiency would need to be increased for their wide scale application. There is a multidisciplinary search for materials with an enhanced thermoelectric responses for use in such devices. This volume covers the latest ideas and developments in this research field, covering topics ranging from the fabrication and characterization of new materials, particularly those with strong electron correlation, use of nanostructured, layered materials and composites, through to theoretical work to gain a deeper understanding of thermoelectric behavior. It should be a useful guide and stimulus to all working in this very topical field.

Properties and Applications of Thermoelectric Materials

The Search for New Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

Properties and Applications of Thermoelectric Materials

As concerns with the efficient use of energy resources, and the minimization of environmental damage have come to the fore, there has been a renewed interest in the role that thermoelectric devices could play in generating electricity from waste heat, enabling cooling via refrigerators with no moving parts, and many other more specialized applications. The main problem in realizing this ambition is the rather low efficiency of such devices for general applications. This book deals with the proceedings of a workshop addressed that problems by reviewing the latest experimental and theoretical work on suitable materials for device applications and by exploring various strategies that might increase their efficiency. The proceedings cover a broad range of approaches, from the experimental work of fabricating new compounds through to theoretical work in characterizing and understanding their properties. The effects of strong electron correlation, disorder, the proximity to metal-insulator transitions, the properties of layered composite materials, and the introduction of voids or cages into the structure to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity are all explored as ways of enhancing the efficiency of their use in thermoelectric devices.

Thermoelectrics

Basic Principles and New Materials Developments

Thermoelectrics

An in-depth analysis of thermoelectric theory, an overview of present day thermoelectric materials and devices, and updated information on the most studied thermoelectric materials development. The main emphasis is on a basic understanding of the concepts as well as experimental techniques needed to propel researchers towards new and novel classes of thermoelectric materials with enhanced properties.

Modern Theory of Thermoelectricity

Modern Theory of Thermoelectricity

In recent years, there have been important developments in the design and fabrication of new thermoelectrics. While a decade ago, progress was mainly empirical, recent advances in theoretical methods have led to a deeper understanding of the parameters that affect the performance of materials in thermoelectric devices. These have brought the goal of producing materials with the required characteristics for commercial application a significant step closer. A search for efficient materials requires a fully microscopic treatment of the charge and heat transport, and the aim of this book is to explain all thermoelectric phenomena from this modern quantum-mechanical perspective. In the first part on phenomenology, conjugate current densities and forces are derived from the condition that the rate of change of the entropy density of the system in the steady state is given by the scalar product between them. The corresponding transport coefficients are explicitly shown to satisfy Onsager's reciprocal relations. The transport equations are solved for a number of cases, and the coefficient of performance, the efficiency, and the figure of merit are computed. State-of-the-art methods for the solution of the transport equations in inhomogeneous thermoelectrics are presented. A brief account on how to include magnetization transport in the formalism is also given. In the second part, quantum mechanical expressions for the transport coefficients are derived, following the approach by Luttinger. These are shown to satisfy Onsager's relations by construction. Three lattice models, currently used to describe strongly correlated electron systems, are introduced: the Hubbard, the Falicov-Kimball, and the periodic Anderson model (PAM), and the relevant current density operators are derived for each of them. A proof of the Jonson-Mahan theorem, according to which all transport coefficients for these models can be obtained from the integral of a unique transport function multiplied by different powers of the frequency, is given. The third part compares theory and experiment. First for the thermoelectric properties of dilute magnetic alloys, where the theoretical results are obtained from poor man's scaling solutions to single impurity models. Then it is shown that the experimental data on heavy fermions and valence fluctuators are well reproduced by the transport coefficients computed for the PAM at low and high temperature. Finally, results obtained from first principles calculations are shown, after a short introduction to density functional theory and beyond. A number of useful appendices complete the book.

Thermoelectric Materials, 1998--the Next Generation Materials for Small-scale Refrigeration and Power Generation Applications

Symposium Held November 30-December 3, 1998, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Thermoelectric Materials, 1998--the Next Generation Materials for Small-scale Refrigeration and Power Generation Applications

This volume, the 3rd in a series from the Materials Research Society, examines the current state of the art in thermoelectric materials research. The focus is on both the scientific capabilities currently employed, and those which are needed to provide new classes of thermoelectric materials with significant enhancement in the figure of merit, Z (100% or greater). This is a challenge for the thermoelectrics community, and thus drives the discussion towards new and innovative directions. Potential applications for thermoelectric technologies are discussed, with emphasis on typing specific materials properties/issues to the desired applications. Overviews of current application needs from thermoelectric devices, and thus the requirements for new materials or device design, are also featured. The volume is multidisciplinary in nature, with representation from the fields of physics, chemistry and materials science. Theoretical studies are presented, as well as experimental efforts in solid-state synthesis, new bulk materials, think-film and superlattice development, nanostructure materials, and new developments in property measurement, especially thermal conductivity.

Thermoelectric Materials

New Directions and Approaches : Symposium Held March 31-April 3, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA

Thermoelectric Materials

Thermoelectric materials are utilized in a wide variety of applications related to solid-state refrigeration or small-scale power generation. More specifically, these applications range from beverage coolers to power generation for deep-space probes such as the Voyager missions. Over the past several years, however, research in the field of thermoelectric materials has been undergoing a rapid rebirth. The enhanced interest in better thermoelectric materials has been driven by the need for much higher performance and new temperature regimes in thermoelectric devices. The focus of this volume is embodied in the title, New Directions and Approaches. The volume emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of the research needed to advance the science and technology. Theoretical studies in materials design, which provide guidance to the experimentalist, are reviewed. Experimental efforts are also featured and include new capabilities in solid-state synthesis, thin-film and superlattice development, and new developments in property measurement of which thermal conductivity will play a central role. New ideas in device design are also discussed.

Chemistry, Physics, and Materials Science of Thermoelectric Materials

Beyond Bismuth Telluride

Chemistry, Physics, and Materials Science of Thermoelectric Materials

This volume:Chemistry, Physics and Materials Science of Thermoelectric Materials: Beyond Bismuth Telluridecontains a series of topical articles that were presented as invited lectures by prominent leaders in this field at a workshop held in Traverse City, Michigan in the summer of 2002. These articles place the state of the art, regarding design principles, candidate materials and systems and current advances in context and should serve as a useful source of insights into this field for both beginning students and practitioners alike.

Thermal Conductivity

Theory, Properties, and Applications

Thermal Conductivity

It has been almost thirty years since the publication of a book that is entirely dedicated to the theory, description, characterization and measurement of the thermal conductivity of solids. The recent discovery of new materials which possess more complex crystal structures and thus more complicated phonon scattering mechanisms have brought innovative challenges to the theory and experimental understanding of these new materials. With the development of new and novel solid materials and new measurement techniques, this book will serve as a current and extensive resource to the next generation researchers in the field of thermal conductivity. This book is a valuable resource for research groups and special topics courses (8-10 students), for 1st or 2nd year graduate level courses in Thermal Properties of Solids, special topics courses in Thermal Conductivity, Superconductors and Magnetic Materials, and to researchers in Thermoelectrics, Thermal Barrier Materials and Solid State Physics.

Design, Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Smart and Advanced Materials

Design, Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Smart and Advanced Materials

This book introduces various advanced, smart materials and the strategies for the design and preparation for novel uses from macro to micro or from biological, inorganic, organic to composite materials. Selecting the best material is a challenging task, requiring tradeoffs between material properties and designing functional smart materials. The development of smart, advanced materials and their potential applications is a burgeoning area of research. Exciting breakthroughs are anticipated in the future from the concepts and results reported in this book.