manufacturing inequality

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Manufacturing Inequality

Author : Laura Lee Downs
ISBN : 0801430151
Genre : History
File Size : 33. 27 MB
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Manufacturing Inequality compares the complex historical process whereby metals employers in two distinct national and cultural settings first brought women into their factories and then reorganized work procedures and managerial structures to accommodate the new workforce. Drawing from an extensive range of previously untapped industrial archives, Laura Lee Downs analyzes how sexual difference was transformed from a principle for excluding women into a basis for dividing labor within the newly restructured production process. She explores the origins of wage discrimination and occupational segregation through the lens of managerial strategy, tracing the gendered redefinition of job skills, the division of the shop floor into hierarchically ordered spaces, the deployment of women welfare supervisors, and the implantation of scientific management techniques. Through its detailed comparative analysis of employers' attitudes toward women workers, Manufacturing Inequality mounts a careful critique of both neoclassical economics and feminist dual systems as frameworks for understanding gender discrimination in industry.

Income Inequality And Poverty In Malaysia

Author : Shireen Mardziah Hashim
ISBN : 0847688585
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31. 23 MB
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This thorough analysis of Malaysia's economic expansion evaluates the success of the government's New Economic Policy (NEP), which was designed to promote national unity by reducing poverty as well as by loosening the link between ethnicity and economic function. The first comprehensive analysis of income distribution trends after the inauguration of the NEP, the study also considers interethnic, urban-rural, and regional variations over time. Although there have been significant reductions in poverty and income inequality, Hashim uses previously unpublished data to show that both are still rampant.

Trade Policy Inequality And Performance In Indian Manufacturing

Author : Kunal Sen
ISBN : 9780415413350
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68. 51 MB
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The relationship between trade policy and economic performance is one of the oldest controversies in economic development. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in the debate on the implications of trade reforms for productivity growth and domestic pricing behaviour due in part to the current phase of wide-spread trade liberalisation in developing countries and in part to developments in economic theory, notably endogenous growth theories and theories of imperfect competition. Also, there has been considerable interest in whether trade reforms can lead to higher wage inequality and regional inequality in developing countries. Both in academic and policy arenas the interest in international trade as a powerful positive force for reducing poverty in low-income countries has increased. In this book, the author examines the implications of trade reforms with specific reference to the Indian manufacturing sector. In particular, it explores the evolution of regional and wage inequality, employment, productivity and prices from the import substitution phase of the 1970s to the period of radical reforms of the 1990s. The strength of the book is the careful and systematic examination of the various aspects of the trade-development nexus using rigorous empirical methods and a detailed data-set of Indian industries from 1975 to 2000. Economists in general and South Asian scholars in particular will find this thorough study interesting and useful.

Spatial Inequality And Development

Author : Ravi Kanbur
ISBN : 0191535303
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 51. 53 MB
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What exactly is spatial inequality? Why does it matter? And what should be the policy response to it? These questions have become important in recent years as the spatial dimensions of inequality have begun to attract considerable policy interest. In China, Russia, India, Mexico, and South Africa, as well as most other developing and transition economies, spatial and regional inequality - of economic activity, incomes, and social indicators - is on the increase. Spatial inequality is a dimension of overall inequality, but it has added significance when spatial and regional divisions align with political and ethnic tensions to undermine social and political stability. Also important in the policy debate is a perceived sense that increasing internal spatial inequality is related to greater openness of economies, and to globalization in general. Despite these important concerns, there is remarkably little systematic documentation of what has happened to spatial and regional inequality over the last twenty years. Correspondingly, there is insufficient understanding of the determinants of internal spatial inequality. This volume attempts to answer the questions posed above, drawing on data from twenty-five countries from all regions of the world. They bring together perspectives and expertise in development economics and in economic geography and form a well-researched introduction to an area of growing analytical and policy importance.

Inequality And Industrial Change

Author : James K. Galbraith
ISBN : 0521009936
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 85. 35 MB
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This book presents a global analysis of the distribution of pay, deploying systematic new measurements on a large scale. Contributions cover the US wage structure back to 1920 and up to 1998, pay inequality and unemployment in Europe since 1970, and the evolution of inequality alongside industrial growth, liberalization, financial crisis, state violence and industrial policy in more than fifty developing countries. The essays evaluate the major debates over rising inequality, and support the emerging view that there exists a powerful macro-dynamics of pay inequality in both rich and poor countries - a view whose origins go back to Keynes and Kuznets. Several papers present detailed descriptions of a new global pay inequality data set based on Theil's T statistic; theoretical and methodological chapters permit students and specialists full access to the measurements and to the non-parametric statistical techniques underlying these studies.

Inequality And Instability

Author : James K. Galbraith
ISBN : 9780199930869
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 77. 43 MB
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As Wall Street rose to dominate the U.S. economy, income and pay inequalities in America came to dance to the tune of the credit cycle. As the reach of financial markets extended across the globe, interest rates, debt, and debt crises became the dominant forces driving the rise of economic inequality almost everywhere. Thus the "super-bubble" that investor George Soros identified in rich countries for the two decades after 1980 was a super-crisis for the 99 percent-not just in the U.S. but the entire world. Inequality and Instability demonstrates that finance is the driveshaft that links inequality to economic instability. The book challenges those, mainly on the right, who see mysterious forces of technology behind rising inequality. And it also challenges those, mainly on the left, who have placed the blame narrowly on trade and outsourcing. Inequality and Instability presents straightforward evidence that the rise of inequality mirrors the stock market in the U.S. and the rise of finance and of free-market policies elsewhere. Starting from the premise that fresh argument requires fresh evidence, James K. Galbraith brings new data to bear as never before, presenting information built up over fifteen years in easily understood charts and tables. By measuring inequality at the right geographic scale, Galbraith shows that more equal societies systematically enjoy lower unemployment. He shows how this plays out inside Europe, between Europe and the United States, and in modern China. He explains that the dramatic rise of inequality in the U.S. in the 1990s reflected a finance-driven technology boom that concentrated incomes in just five counties, very remote from the experience of most Americans-which helps explain why the political reaction was so slow to come. That the reaction is occurring now, however, is beyond doubt. In the aftermath of the Great Financial Crisis, inequality has become, in America and the world over, the central issue. A landmark work of research and original insight, Inequality and Instability will change forever the way we understand this pivotal topic.

Programmed Inequality

Author : Marie Hicks
ISBN : 9780262035545
Genre : Computers
File Size : 35. 84 MB
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How Britain lost its early dominance in computing by systematically discriminating against its most qualified workers: women.

Income Inequality In The United States 1947 1985

Author : Nan L. Maxwell
ISBN : 0313264112
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 13 MB
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This interdisciplinary work presents the results of a comprehensive study of the causes and consequences of the rise in family income inequality during the period between 1947 and 1985. By examining the impact of changing industrial and occupational employment, population age structure, household structure, female labor force participation, and government spending on income inequality, the book systematically estimates and compares the influences on the inequality upturn. Strong evidence is presented which argues that the predominant influence on increasing income inequality is the changing economy, which has resulted in increased income at the top of the distribution and reduced income at the bottom.

Power Profits And Patriarchy

Author : William G. Staples
ISBN : 9781461613244
Genre : History
File Size : 87. 78 MB
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Founded in 1791 and in existence for more than two hundred years, the Kenrick iron foundry of West Bromwich, England produced some of the finest cast-iron hardware ever made. William and Clifford Staples' goal in studying the Kenrick case is to examine how taken-for-granted assumptions about class, gender, and familial relations contributed to the longevity of the firm.

Patterns Of Social Inequality

Author : Huw Beynon
ISBN : 9781317887126
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 40 MB
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Written by a group of the UK's leading Sociologists, this book covers in one volume all of the themes central to an understanding of contemporary British Society. Essays provide an historical overview of such topics as class, gender, work, ethnicity and community but also make a theoretical and substantive contribution to current debates.

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