instrumentation in earthquake seismology

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Instrumentation In Earthquake Seismology

Author : Jens Havskov
ISBN : 1402029691
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 20 MB
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Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors’ practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology is written to be understandable to the broad range of professionals working with seismological instruments and seismic data, whether students, engineers or seismologists. Whether installing seismic stations, networks and arrays, working and calibrating stationary or portable instruments, dealing with response information, or teaching about seismic instruments, professionals and academics now have a practical and authoritative sourcebook. Includes: SEISAN and SEISLOG software systems that are available from http://extras.springer.com and http://www.geo.uib.no/seismo/software/software.html

Routine Data Processing In Earthquake Seismology

Author : Jens Havskov
ISBN : 9789048186976
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 68 MB
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The purpose of this book is to get a practical understanding of the most common processing techniques in earthquake seismology. The book deals with manual methods and computer assisted methods. Each topic will be introduced with the basic theory followed by practical examples and exercises. There are manual exercises entirely based on the printed material of the book, as well as computer exercises based on public domain software. Most exercises are computer based. The software used, as well as all test data are available from http://extras.springer.com. This book is intended for everyone processing earthquake data, both in the observatory routine and in connection with research. Using the exercises, the book can also be used as a basis for university courses in earthquake processing. Since the main emphasis is on processing, the theory will only be dealt with to the extent needed to understand the processing steps, however references will be given to where more extensive explanations can be found. Includes: • Exercises • Test data • Public domain software (SEISAN) available from http://extras.springer.com

An Introduction To Seismology Earthquakes And Earth Structure

Author : Seth Stein
ISBN : 9781118687451
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 28 MB
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An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and EarthStructures is an introduction to seismology and its role in theearth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate andbeginning graduate students. The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed usinga physical approach and then applied to show how refraction,reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study thestructure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. Thebook shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and areintegrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonicprocesses that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, andcomputer exercises teach students about seismology in a creativeand intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vectorand tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statisticsof errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introducedwith many relevant examples. The text also addresses thefundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology tosocietal issues. Special attention is paid to help studentsvisualize connections between different topics and view seismologyas an integrated science. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and EarthStructure gives an excellent overview for students ofgeophysics and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation forfurther studies in seismology. Multidisciplinary examples throughout the text - catering tostudents in varied disciplines (geology, mineralogy, petrology,physics, etc.). Most up to date book on the market - includes recent seismicevents such as the 1999 Earthquakes in Turkey, Greece, andTaiwan). Chapter outlines - each chapter begins with an outline and alist of learning objectives to help students focus and study. Essential math review - an entire section reviews the essentialmath needed to understand seismology. This can be covered in classor left to students to review as needed. End of chapter problem sets - homework problems that cover thematerial presented in the chapter. Solutions to all odd numberedproblem sets are listed in the back so that students can tracktheir progress. Extensive References - classic references and more currentreferences are listed at the end of each chapter. A set of instructor's resources containing downloadable versionsof all the figures in the book, errata and answers to homeworkproblems is available at:http://levee.wustl.edu/seismology/book/. Also available on thiswebsite are PowerPoint lecture slides corresponding to the first 5chapters of the book.

Of Poles And Zeros

Author : Frank Scherbaum
ISBN : 0792368347
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 18 MB
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Digital signal processing has become an integral part of observational seismology. Seismic waveforms and the parameters commonly extracted from them are strongly influenced by the effects of numerous filters, both within the earth and within the recording system. With the advent of numerous software tools for the processing of digital seismograms, seismologists have unprecedented power in extracting information from seismic records. These tools are often based on sophisticated theoretical aspects of digital signal processing which, to be used properly, need to be understood. This book is aimed at observational seismologists and students in geophysics trying to obtain a basic understanding of those aspects of digital signal processing that are relevant to the interpretation of seismograms. It covers the basic theory of linear systems, the design and analysis of simple digital filters, the effect of sampling and A/D conversion, the calculation of 'true ground motion', and the effects of seismic recording systems on parameters extracted from digital seismograms. It contains numerous examples and exercises together with their solutions. The second edition contains the Digital Seismology Tutor by Elke Schmidtke (University of Potsdam) and Frank Scherbaum, a Java applet with all the tools to reproduce and/or modify the examples and problems from this book as well as a treatment of sigma-delta modulation with new problems and exercises.

Plates Vs Plumes

Author : Gillian R. Foulger
ISBN : 1444348329
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 33 MB
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Since the advent of the mantle plume hypothesis in 1971, scientists have been faced with the problem that its predictions are not confirmed by observation. For thirty years, the usual reaction has been to adapt the hypothesis in numerous ways. As a result, the multitude of current plume variants now amounts to an unfalsifiable hypothesis. In the early 21st century demand became relentless for a theory that can explain melting anomalies in a way that fits the observations naturally and is forward-predictive. From this the Plate hypothesis emerged–the exact inverse of the Plume hypothesis. The Plate hypothesis attributes melting anomalies to shallow effects directly related to plate tectonics. It rejects the hypothesis that surface volcanism is driven by convection in the deep mantle. Earth Science is currently in the midst of the kind of paradigm-challenging debate that occurs only rarely in any field. This volume comprises its first handbook. It reviews the Plate and Plume hypotheses, including a clear statement of the former. Thereafter it follows an observational approach, drawing widely from many volcanic regions in chapters on vertical motions of Earth's crust, magma volumes, time-progressions of volcanism, seismic imaging, mantle temperature and geochemistry. This text: Deals with a paradigm shift in Earth Science - some say the most important since plate tectonics Is analogous to Wegener's The Origin of Continents and Oceans Is written to be accessible to scientists and students from all specialities This book is indispensable to Earth scientists from all specialties who are interested in this new subject. It is suitable as a reference work for those teaching relevant classes, and an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying plate tectonics and related topics. Visit Gillian's own website at http://www.mantleplumes.org

Elastic Waves In The Earth

Author : Walter L. Pilant
ISBN : 9780444601940
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 11 MB
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Elastic Waves in the Earth provides information on the relationship between seismology and geophysics and their general aspects. The book offers elastodynamic equations and derivative equations that can be used in the propagation of elastic waves. It also covers major topics in detail, such as the fundamentals of elastodynamics; the Lamb's problem, which includes the Cagniard-de Hoop theory; rays and modes in a radially inhomogeneous earth and in multilayered media, which includes the Thomson-Haskell theory; the elastic wave dissipation; the seismic source and noise; and the seismographs. The book consists of 33 chapters. The first 16 chapters include basic material related to the propagation of elastic waves. Topics covered by these chapters include scalars, vectors, and tensors in cartesian coordinates, stress and strain analysis, equations of elasticity and motion, plane waves, Rayleigh waves, plane-wave theory, and fluid-fluid and solid-solid interfaces. The second half of the book covers various ray and mode theories, elastic wave dissipation, and the observations and theories of seismic source and seismic noise. It concludes by discussing earthquake seismology and different seismographs, like the pendulum seismometer and the strain seismometer.

Earthquake Engineering Facilities And Instrumentation

Author : National Research Council (U.S.). Ad Hoc Committee on Earthquake Engineering Facilities and Instrumentation
ISBN : NAP:15310
Genre : Buildings
File Size : 77. 33 MB
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Seismic Instrumentation Design

Author : Raman K. Attri
ISBN : 9789811197512
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 46 MB
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This book is a collection of three papers authored by Dr. Raman K Attri between 1999 to 2001. The book presents early-career scientific work by the author as a scientist at a research organization. The book provides a theoretical and conceptual understanding of concepts and principles for detection and measurements of the seismic signals. The earthquake phenomenon is one of the most unpredictable and often devastating natural events. Sophisticated and advanced technologies are being used for monitoring the seismic activities across the world and efforts are being put in place to develop prediction models. The theory behind the design of sensors, instrumentation and monitoring system is usually not known to electronics and software engineers upfront. The papers included in this book provide such basic guidance to electronics and software design engineers and equip them with the key computational and algorithmic principles based on the underlying theory of seismic activities. These design techniques are fundamental to designing sophisticated seismic instrumentation and earthquake monitoring systems. The first paper presents a simplified mathematical framework of the seismic events and backend computational software logic that will enable software engineers to develop a customized seismic analysis and computation software. The second paper presents a simplified description of various earthquake parameters of interest to a seismologist and how these complex parameters are computed using equations. In the third paper, a visionary concept is presented to integrate geo-scientific instrumentation equipment such as seismic measurement systems to information technology network that would create a centralized web-enabled database that would allow transmitting the data acquired by geographically distributed but networked observatories to better predict or alert about the phenomena like earthquakes.

Induced Earthquakes

Author : S.K. Guha
ISBN : 9789401594523
Genre : Science
File Size : 48. 51 MB
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There are few books and long review articles on water reservoir induced seismicity, mining induced seismicity and even on volcanic seismicity but the subjects of induced seismicity following fluid extraction and nuclear explosion and seismicity associated with tidal stress in Earth have not received significant attention though there are research papers in relevant literature. Thus an attempt has been made to discuss all the known forms of induced seismicity in the present book and to bring out common features of the different phenomena causing induced seismicity. The book has six main chapters namely 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, the first and last chapters, namely 1 and 8 being introduction and overview of all forms of induced seismicity. Material in Chapters 2 and 3 is rather recent though water reservoirs and petroleum extraction processes have been in existence over many decades. But, literature on chapters 4 and 5 is available since last one century or so as volcanic process and mining operation affect nearby human habitation and mining severely due to induced seismicity associated with mining in particular. However, literature on possible induced seismicity due to tidal stress is fairly old, the same following nuclear explosion is naturally recent.

Increasing Seismic Safety By Combining Engineering Technologies And Seismological Data

Author : Marco Mucciarelli
ISBN : 9781402091964
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 25 MB
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The current state-of-the-art allows seismologists to give statistical estimates of the probability of a large earthquake striking a given region, identifying the areas in which the seismic hazard is the highest. However, the usefulness of these estimates is limited, without information about local subsoil conditions and the vulnerability of buildings. Identifying the sites where a local ampli?cation of seismic shaking will occur, and identifying the buildings that will be the weakest under the seismic shaking is the only strategy that allows effective defence against earthquake damage at an affordable cost, by applying selective reinforcement only to the structures that need it. Unfortunately, too often the Earth’s surface acted as a divide between seism- ogists and engineers. Now it is becoming clear that the building behaviour largely depends on the seismic input and the buildings on their turn act as seismic sources, in an intricate interplay that non-linear phenomena make even more complex. These phenomena are often the cause of observed damage enhancement during past ear- quakes. While research may pursue complex models to fully understand soil dyn- ics under seismic loading, we need, at the same time, simple models valid on average, whose results can be easily transferred to end users without prohibitive expenditure. Very complex models require a large amount of data that can only be obtained at a very high cost or may be impossible to get at all.

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