By illustrating a wide range of specific applications in all major industries, this work broadens the coverage of X-ray diffraction beyond basic tenets, research and academic principles. The book serves as a guide to solving problems faced everyday in the laboratory, and offers a review of the current theory and practice of X-ray diffraction, major advances and potential uses.
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to researchers in materials science, chemistry, physics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as graduate-level students in these areas.
This book explores novel methods for implementing X-ray diffraction technology as an imaging modality, which have been made possible through recent breakthroughs in detector technology, computational power, and data processing algorithms. The ability to perform fast, spatially-resolved X-ray diffraction throughout the volume of a sample opens up entirely new possibilities in areas such as material analysis, cancer diagnosis, and explosive detection, thus offering the potential to revolutionize the fields of medical, security, and industrial imaging and detection. Featuring chapters written by an international selection of authors from both academia and industry, the book provides a comprehensive discussion of the underlying physics, architectures, and applications of X-ray diffraction imaging that is accessible and relevant to neophytes and experts alike. Teaches novel methods for X-ray diffraction imaging Comprehensive and self-contained discussion of the relevant physics, imaging techniques, system components, and data processing algorithms Features state-of-the-art work of international authors from both academia and industry. Includes practical applications in the medical, industrial, and security sectors
Providing proven strategies for solutions to research, development, and production dilemmas, this reference details the instrumentation and underlying principles for utilization of electron microscopy in the manufacturing, automotive, semiconductor, photographic film, pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, forensic, glass, and pulp and paper industries. The book covers safety, calibration, and troubleshooting techniques, as well as methods in sample preparation and image collection, interpretation, and analysis. It includes contributions from microscopy experts based at major corporations and scientists from universities and major research centers.
Part I: General physics and applications of x-radiation: Before and after the discovery by roentgen. X-ray tubes. High-tension equipment. The measurement of intensity (dosage). The measurement of quality (Wave length). X-ray spectra and atomic structure. Chemical analysis from x-ray spectra. The absorption and scattering of x-rays. Radiography. X-ray photochemistry. The biological effects of x-radiation. Part II: The x-ray analysis of the ultimate structures of materials: Crystallography and x-ray diffraction. The experimental x-ray methods of crystal analysis. The interpretation of diffraction patterns in terms of ultimate structure. The results of crystal analysis: elements and inorganic compounds. Crystal chemistry: fundamental generalizations from experimental data. The silicates. Minerals, soils, ceramics, cements. Alloys. The crystalline and molecular structures of organic compounds. The structure of glasses, liquids, and other colloidal and amorphous materials. The interpretation of diffraction patterns in terms of grain size, orientation, internal strain, and mechanical deformation. Practical applications of x-ray diffraction to problems of the metallurgical industry. Polymers-synthetic and natural materials with giant molecules.
Unified Theory and Practice: Polymer Adhesion, X-Ray Diffraction, & X-Ray Florescence By: Frank H. Chung, PhD There are seven adhesion theories scattered in the literature. Each explains adhesion strength loosely in words and figures. The unified theory of polymer adhesion derives a mathematical equation linking bond length, bond energy and bond strength (lb/in 2 ). It unifies and clarifies prior insights into a coherent concept. A set of guidelines is compiled on the effects of functional groups, solvent blends, pigments and filler, adhesion promotion, and the causes of adhesion loss. Due to the complex matrix effects, the quantitative XRD & XRF analyses of mixtures require calibration lines from standard, hence tedious and time-consuming. New insights reveal that both the matrix effects and calibration lines can be eliminated mathematically. A decoding formula applies to both XRD & XRF. One XRD or XRF scan quantifies the chemical elements or compounds in any mixture. The unified procedure reduces about 80% of work current practice with a precision of ± 5% or better.
Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space
The 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik was held in Regensburg, Germany, March 2007, in conjunction with the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. It was one of the largest physics meetings in Europe. The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains written versions of a large number of the invited talks and gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems are dominating.