glial physiology and pathophysiology

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Glial Physiology And Pathophysiology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
ISBN : 9781118402054
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66. 27 MB
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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells. Coverae includes: the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it. An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system Describes the role og glial cells in neuropathology Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts Companion website with downloadable figures and slides

Glial Neurobiology

Author : Alexei Verkhratsky
ISBN : 0470513071
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 85 MB
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

Biophysical Effects Of Cold Atmospheric Plasma On Glial Tumor Cells

Author : Julia Köritzer
ISBN : 9783319062242
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 45 MB
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Cold atmospheric plasma is an auspicious new candidate in cancer treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a partially ionized gas in which the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules and UV photons. These various compositional elements have the potential to inhibit cancer cell activity whilst doing no harm to healthy cells. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults; treatment including surgery, radio- and chemotherapy remains palliative for most patients as a cure remains elusive. The successful combination of the standard chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ) and CAP treatment features synergistic effects even in resistant glioma cells. In particular in glioma therapy, CAP could offer an innovative approach allowing specific cancer cell / tumor tissue inhibition without damaging healthy cells. Thus CAP is a promising candidate for combination therapy especially for patients suffering from GBMs showing TMZ resistance.

Purinergic Signalling In Neuron Glia Interactions

Author : Derek J. Chadwick
ISBN : 9780470032237
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 45 MB
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ATP, the intracellular energy source, is also an extremely important cell–cell signalling molecule for a wide variety of cells across evolutionarily diverse organisms. The extracellular biochemistry of ATP and its derivatives is complex, and the multiple membrane receptors that it activates are linked to many intracellular signalling systems. Purinergic signalling affects a diverse range of cellular phenomena, including ion channel function, cytoskeletal dynamics, gene expression, secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Recently, this class of signalling molecules and receptors has been found to mediate communication between neurons and non-neuronal cells (glia) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Glia are critical for normal brain function, development and response to injury. Neural impulse activity is detected by glia and purinergic signalling is emerging as a major means of integrating functional activity between neurons, glia and vascular cells in the nervous system. These interactions mediate effects of neural activity on the development of the nervous system and in association with injury, neurodegeneration, myelination and cancer. Bringing together contributions from experts in diverse fields, including glial biologists, neurobiologists and specialists in purinergic receptor structure and pharmacology, this book considers how extracellular ATP acts to integrate communication between different types of glia, and between neurons and glia. Beginning with an overview of glia and purinergic signalling, it contains detailed coverage of purine release, receptors and reagents, purinergic signalling in the neural control of glial development, glial involvement in information processing, and discussion of the interactions between neurons and microglia.

Physiology And Pathophysiology Of Leukocyte Adhesion

Author : D. Neil Granger
ISBN : 0195081021
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 62 MB
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Leukocytes play an integral role in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory disorders. Recent results indicate that leukocytes are also involved in conditions that had not formerly been associated with a cytotoxic effect by leukocytes. In 27 chapters by leading investigators, this book reviews recent research on leukocyte adhesion and microvascular kinetics. Detailed descriptions of adhesive glycoproteins expressed on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells are given together with summaries of the current state of leukocyte rheology, kinetics and entrapment in microvessels. Since leukocytes reach all organs, the mechanisms described in this volume may apply to a wide range of cardiovascular disorders. A variety of important inflammatory and circulatory disorders are discussed including cerebral and coronary ischemia, shock, atherogenesis, chronic venous insufficiency, gastric ulcer and diabetic retinopathy. New concepts about the etiology of cardiovascular complications are presented, with emphasis on molecular, cellular, and microvascular mechanisms. The current state of endogenous anti-adhesive and pro-adhesive mediators is summarized, including interventions against leukocyte activation and adhesion.

The Role Of Glia In Neurotoxicity Second Edition

Author : Michael Aschner
ISBN : 9781420039740
Genre : Medical
File Size : 47. 44 MB
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Presenting the latest research in glial cell function gleaned from new techniques in imaging and molecular biology, The Role of Glia in Neurotoxicity, Second Edition covers multiple aspects of glial cells, including morphology, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, and their involvement in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The book is structured to examine the interactions between glial cells and neurons during development, adulthood, and senescence, followed by specific examples of directly mediated glial neurotoxicity. The book also covers miscellaneous topics in glial physiology/biochemistry such as signaling and edema. The book includes coverage of advances in our knowledge and understanding of glial physiology and biochemistry. Discover what's new in the Second Edition: Neuronal-glia metabolic interactions Neuronal-glia interactions (glutamate homeostasis) Zinc transporters in glia Energy deprivation/mitochondrial dysfunction - unique astrocyte susceptibilities Astrocytes and MPTP neurotoxicity Astroglia and food toxins Current understanding of the importance of glia has caused a boom in published information. Yet while many of the published textbooks are multifaceted and multidisciplinary, none includes the role of glia in neurotoxicity. Written by leaders in the field of glial research, this text fills this missing gap in the literature. Broader in scope than the first edition, including contributions from internationally known researchers, this is still the only book dedicated to exploring the role of glial cells in mediating neurotoxicology. Features Summarizes the latest research in glial cell function gleaned from new techniques in imaging and molecular biology Contains tables and figures that give you quick and easy access to precise data Includes a contemporary summary of literature that puts information useful for grant submissions at your fingertips Features new chapters covering metabolic interactions, glutamate homeostasis, transporters, energy deprivation/mitochondrial dysfunction, astrocytes, and food toxins Explores the role of glial cells in mediating neurotoxicity and incorporates information on specific effects of many compounds

Enteric Glia

Author : Brian D. Gulbransen
ISBN : 9781615046614
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37. 16 MB
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The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a complex neural network embedded in the gut wall that orchestrates the reflex behaviors of the intestine. The ENS is often referred to as the “little brain” in the gut because the ENS is more similar in size, complexity and autonomy to the central nervous system (CNS) than other components of the autonomic nervous system. Like the brain, the ENS is composed of neurons that are surrounded by glial cells. Enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that are similar to astrocytes of the CNS. Yet enteric glial cells also differ from astrocytes in many important ways. The roles of enteric glial cell populations in the gut are beginning to come to light and recent evidence implicates enteric glia in almost every aspect of gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. However, elucidating the exact mechanisms by which enteric glia influence gastrointestinal physiology and identifying how those roles are altered during gastrointestinal pathophysiology remain areas of intense research. The purpose of this e-book is to provide an introduction to enteric glial cells and to act as a resource for ongoing studies on this fascinating population of glia. Table of Contents: Introduction / A Historical Perspective on Enteric Glia / Enteric Glia: The Astroglia of the Gut / Molecular Composition of Enteric Glia / Development of Enteric Glia / Functional Roles of Enteric Glia / Enteric Glia and Disease Processes in the Gut / Concluding Remarks / References / Author Biography

Glial Interfaces In The Nervous System

Author : John Fraher
ISBN : 1586031996
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 5 MB
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Glial cells are commonly viewed as subordinate players to the functional requirements of neighbouring neurons – in normal as well as pathological conditions. These neuron-glial interactions are crucial for the development, maintenance, plasticity and repair of the nervous system. They are also dependent upon and/or influenced by interactions between glial cells themselves. This book provides a unique focus on structural, molecular and physiological aspects of glial-glial interactions in the nervous system and their significance for neuronal function, integrity, regeneration and repair. It emphasises the possibilities for modifying these interactions and the consequent opportunities for developing new therapies, which counteract neuronal injury and/or promote recovery from neurological disorders such as paraplegia and stroke.

Physiology Of Non Excitable Cells

Author : J. Salánki
ISBN : 9781483189949
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 58 MB
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Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 3: Physiology of Non-Excitable Cells is a collection of papers presented at the 28th International Congress of Physiology, held in Budapest on July 13-19, 1980. This book is organized into five parts encompassing 36 chapters that cover the various physiological aspects of non-excitable cells and neuronal membranes. The first two parts describe cellular models of iso-osmotic and epithelial transport. The third part highlights the relationship between cell transport and cellular metabolism. This part also deals with the genetic and hormonal control of cellular transport, as well as the lipoprotein synthesis and secretion by hepatocyte. The fourth part explores cell-to-cell communication through junctional membrane channels and calmodulin. The fifth part examines the temporal structure of biological systems in the sub-second time domains. This book will be of value to physiologists, cell biologists, researchers, and biology students.

The Surface Contact Glia

Author : F. Hajos
ISBN : 9783642696237
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 96 MB
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1. 1 Brief History The diversity of cells constituting the central nervous system did not deceive last century neurohistologists in recognizing that this organ contained essentially two cell types: the nerve cells, or as termed according to the emerging concept of neural contiguity, the neurons, and the neuroglial cells. Neurons were clearly shown to be the means of excitability, impulse generation, impulse transmission, and connectivity in the neural tissue. The neuroglia, as indicated by its name (YAloc=cement or glue) given by Virchow (1860), was thought to be the cement ing material ensuring the coherence of the nervous tissue, filling in the spaces of the neuropil, and isolating neuronal cell bodies. While this supposedly passive role did not attract multidisciplinary research on the neuroglia, successful efforts were made to extend our knowledge of the physiology, morphology, and bio chemistry of neurons. As a result of this, the investigation of the neuroglia carried out in the first half of this century was mainly confined to morphology, often as a by-product of comprehensive analyses of neuronal systems. At any rate, the histological classification of the neuroglia was accomplished, laying a framework which has been used to the present day. Accordingly, the glia was divided into two major groups: the macro- and microglia. The former comprises two further subclasses, the astroglia and oligodendroglia.

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