Game Theory and Pragmatics

Game Theory and Pragmatics

Rooted in Gricean tradition, this book concentrates on game- and decision-theoretic (GDT) approaches to the foundations of pragmatics. An Introduction to GDT, with an overview of GDT pragmatics research to date and its relation to semantics and to Gricean pragmatics is followed by contributions offering a high-level survey of current GDT pragmatics and the field of its applications, demonstrating that this approach provides a sound basis for synchronic and diachronic explanations of language use.

Game Theory and Linguistic Meaning

Game Theory and Linguistic Meaning

This is the first book to collect research on game-theoretic tools in the analysis of language with particular reference to semantics and pragmatics. Games are significant, because they pertain equally to pragmatics and semantics of natural language. The book provides an overview of the variety of ways in which game theory is used in the analysis of linguistic meaning and shows how games arise in pragmatic as well as semantic investigations.

Language, Games, and Evolution

Trends in Current Research on Language and Game Theory

Language, Games, and Evolution

Recent years witnessed an increased interest in formal pragmatics and especially the establishment of game theory as a new research methodology for the study of language use. Game and Decision Theory (GDT) are natural candidates if we look for a theoretical foundation of linguistic pragmatics. Over the last decade, a firm research community has emerged with a strong interdisciplinary character, where economists, philosophers, and social scientists meet with linguists. Within this field of research, three major currents can be distinguished: one is closely related to the Gricean paradigm and aims at a precise foundation of pragmatic reasoning, the second originates in the economic literature and is concerned with the role of game theory in the context of language use, and the third aims at language evolution seen either from a biological or from a cultural perspective. Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this volume is based on a selection of papers of two international conferences, one organised at ESSLLI in 2007 on language, games, and evolution, and the other organised at the ZAS in Berlin on games and decisions in pragmatics in 2008. This volume is rounded off by additional invited papers and now contains eight articles of leading researchers in the field which together provide a state-of-the-art survey of current research on language evolution and game theoretic approaches to pragmatics.

The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics

The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics

This volume brings together distinguished scholars from all over the world to present an authoritative, thorough, and yet accessible state-of-the-art survey of current issues in pragmatics. Following an introduction by the editor, the volume is divided into five thematic parts. Chapters in Part I are concerned with schools of thought, foundations, and theories, while Part II deals with central topics in pragmatics, including implicature, presupposition, speech acts, deixis, reference, and context. In Part III, the focus is on cognitively-oriented pragmatics, covering topics such as computational, experimental, and neuropragmatics. Part IV takes a look at socially and culturally-oriented pragmatics such as politeness/impoliteness studies, cross- and intercultural, and interlanguage pragmatics. Finally, the chapters in Part V explore the interfaces of pragmatics with semantics, grammar, morphology, the lexicon, prosody, language change, and information structure. The Oxford Handbook of Pragmatics will be an indispensable reference for scholars and students of pragmatics of all theoretical stripes. It will also be a valuable resource for linguists in other fields, including philosophy of language, semantics, morphosyntax, prosody, psycholinguistics, and sociolinguistics, and for researchers and students in the fields of cognitive science, artificial intelligence, computer science, anthropology, and sociology.

Reliability in Pragmatics

Reliability in Pragmatics

This book is an exploration of how knowledge about the reliability of information sources manifests itself in linguistic phenomena and use. It focuses on cooperation in language use and on how considerations of reliability influence what is done with the information acquired through language. Eric McCready provides a detailed account of the phenomena of hedging and evidentiality and analyses them using tools from game theory, dynamic semantics, and formal epistemology. Hedging is argued to be a mechanism used by speakers to protect their reputations for cooperativity from damage inflicted by infelicitous discourse moves. The pragmatics of evidential use is also discussed in terms of the histories of interaction that influence reputation: the author argues that past experience with the evidence source indexed by the evidential determines how the process of adding information will proceed. The book makes many new connections between seemingly disparate aspects of linguistic meaning and practice. It will be of interest to specialists in semantics, pragmatics, and philosophy of language, as well as those in the fields of philosophy and cognitive science with an interest in language and epistemology.

Signs of Logic

Peircean Themes on the Philosophy of Language, Games, and Communication

Signs of Logic

Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) was one of the United States’ most original and profound thinkers, and a prolific writer. Peirce’s game theory-based approaches to the semantics and pragmatics of signs and language, to the theory of communication, and to the evolutionary emergence of signs, provide a toolkit for contemporary scholars and philosophers. Drawing on unpublished manuscripts, the book offers a rich, fresh picture of the achievements of a remarkable man.

The Routledge Pragmatics Encyclopedia

The Routledge Pragmatics Encyclopedia

Pragmatics has grown considerably in its relatively short history, from its original disciplinary influences in philosophy and linguistics, into a multidisciplinary field that encompasses a range of theoretical and empirical concerns. The Routledge Pragmatics Encyclopedia captures the diversity of these intellectual interests in a comprehensive, single-volume edition. The Routledge Pragmatics Encyclopedia covers concepts and theories that have traditionally been associated with pragmatics, but also recent areas of development within the field, scholars who have had a significant influence on pragmatics, interdisciplinary exchanges between pragmatics and other areas of enquiry and all major research trends. Extensive cross-references between entries, along with suggestions for further reading at the end of entries, ensure that the interested reader can pursue additional study of chosen topics. With over 200 entries, written by leading academics from around the world, The Routledge Pragmatics Encyclopedia captures the rich complexity of pragmatics in an accessible manner. This reference will be relevant to students of pragmatics as well as to established scholars in the field.

Logic, Language, and Computation

7th International Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language, and Computation, TbiLLC 2007, Tbilisi, Georgia, October 1-5, 2007. Revised Selected Papers

Logic, Language, and Computation

Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this book constitutes the 5th volume of the FoLLI LNAI subline. It contains the refereed proceedings of the Third Indian Conference on Logic and Its Applications, ICLA 2009, held in Chennai, India, in January 2009. The 12 revised full papers presented together with 7 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers present current research in all aspects of formal logic. They address in detail: algebraic logic and set theory, combinatorics and philosophical logic, modal logics with applications to computer science and game theory, and connections between ancient logic systems and modern systems.

Incorporated Servanthood

Commitment and Discipleship in the Gospel of Matthew

Incorporated Servanthood

In this volume Ben Cooper analyses how commitment to God is described within the Gospel of Matthew, how this is related to becoming a disciple of Jesus, and how reading or hearing the Gospel works to evoke such a response. The analysis draws upon a variety of approaches in linguistics and literary studies in a new way to characterise the 'communicative equilibrium' between the author and the subset of readers who process the text compliantly. Cooper argues that Matthew's Gospel evokes in its compliant readers a particular kind of theocentric commitment, which he calls 'incorporated Servanthood'. Such readers become persuaded that Jesus came to bring forgiveness of sins to the people of God and then to take this salvation out to the nations, a program that can be associated with Isaiah's Servant of the Lord. Compliant readers are humbled so they can be served by the Servant for the forgiveness of their sins. They are then incorporated into his program for the nations, to join in the task of incorporating others.

Communication and Content

Communication and Content

Communication and content presents a comprehensive and foundational account of meaning based on new versions of situation theory and game theory. The literal and implied meanings of an utterance are derived from first principles assuming little more than the partial rationality of interacting agents. New analyses of a number of diverse phenomena – a wide notion of ambiguity and content encompassing phonetics, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and beyond, vagueness, convention and conventional meaning, indeterminacy, universality, the role of truth in communication, semantic change, translation, Frege’s puzzle of informative identities – are developed. Communication, speaker meaning, and reference are defined. Frege’s context and compositional principles are generalized and reconciled in a fixed-point principle, and a detailed critique of Grice, several aspects of Lewis, and some aspects of the Romantic conception of meaning are offered. Connections with other branches of linguistics, especially psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and natural language processing, are explored. The book will be of interest to scholars in philosophy, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and cognitive science. It should also interest readers in related fields like literary and cultural theory and the social sciences. "This book is the culmination of Prashant Parikh's long and deep work on fundamental questions of language and how they can be illuminated by game-theoretic analysis." — Roger Myerson, 2007 Nobel Laureate in Economics, University of Chicago "Prashant Parikh has, over the years, accumulated a substantial and impressive body of work on the nature of language, deploying the resources of game theory. Communication and content is a vastly ambitious culmination of this lifelong pursuit. It covers a tremendously wide range of themes and critically discusses an enormous range of writing on those themes from diverse intellectual traditions, as it systematically develops a game-theoretic account of content in the communicative contexts in which human linguistic capacities are employed, eschewing standard distinctions between semantics and pragmatics, and offering instead a highly integrated elaboration of the slogan “meaning is use”. It is a work that is at once creative yet conscientious, bold yet rigorously technical, systematic yet sensitive to contingency and context. It will abundantly reward close study." — Akeel Bilgrami, Sidney Morgenbesser Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University "Prashant Parikh has made fundamental contributions to the game-theoretic analysis of linguistic meaning. Communication and content summarizes and extends this important work, offering a truly novel approach to the strategic foundations of meaning. This approach finds a way out of the prison of methodological solipsism and opens up the study of linguistic meaning to scientific study." — Robin Clark, Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania "A pioneering attempt to work out things like literal meaning, modulation, enrichment, implicature, etc. in mathematical detail within a game-theoretic framework." — François Recanati, Chair, Philosophy of Language and Mind, Collège de France "Communication and content is the crowning achievement of a long line of research pioneered by Prashant Parikh. In this groundbreaking work Parikh introduces a fresh perspective on natural language pragmatics, by making a creative tie with game theory. Clearly written, Communication and content weaves together semantics, game theory, and situation theory to create a thought-provoking picture of natural language pragmatics. Every modern AI researcher interested in the foundations of natural language pragmatics owes it to him- or herself to become familiar with this picture." — Yoav Shoham, Computer Science Department, Stanford University