Approximately 77 percent of the freshwater used in the United States comes from surface-water sources and is subject to natural organic matter contamination according to the United States Geological Survey. This presents a distinct challenge to water treatment engineers. An essential resource to the latest breakthroughs in the characterization, treatment and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from drinking water, Natural Organic Matter in Waters: Characterization and Treatment Methods focuses on advance filtration and treatment options, and processes for reducing disinfection byproducts. Based on the author’s years of research and field experience, this book begins with the characterization of NOM including: general parameters, isolation and concentration, fractionation, composition and structural analysis and biological testing. This is followed by removal methods such as inorganic coagulants, polyelectrolytes and composite coagulants. Electrochemical and membranes removal methods such as: electrocoagulation, electrochemical oxidation, microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and membrane fouling. Covers conventional as well as advanced NOM removal methods Includes characterization methods of NOM Explains removal methods such as: removal by coagulation, electrochemical, advanced oxidation, and integrated methods
Release on 2016-09-03 | by Malcolm J. Brandt,K. Michael Johnson,Andrew J. Elphinston,Don D. Ratnayaka
Author: Malcolm J. Brandt,K. Michael Johnson,Andrew J. Elphinston,Don D. Ratnayaka
Category: Technology & Engineering
Twort's Water Supply, Seventh Edition, has been expanded to provide the latest tools and techniques to meet engineering challenges over dwindling natural resources. Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrhea-related diseases amounts to 2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water. This update reflects the latest WHO, European, UK, and US standards, including the European Water Framework Directive. The book also includes an expansion of waste and sludge disposal, including energy and sustainability, and new chapters on intakes, chemical storage, handling, and sampling. Written for both professionals and students, this book is essential reading for anyone working in water engineering. Features expanded coverage of waste and sludge disposal to include energy use and sustainability Includes a new chapter on intakes Includes a new chapter on chemical storage and handling
Release on 2009-06-26 | by Ratnayaka,Don D. Ratnayaka,Malcolm J. Brandt,Michael Johnson
Author: Ratnayaka,Don D. Ratnayaka,Malcolm J. Brandt,Michael Johnson
Category: Technology & Engineering
Water Supply has been the most comprehensive guide to the design, construction and operation of water supply systems for more than 40 years. The combined experience of its authors make it an unparalleled resource for professionals and students alike. This new sixth edition has been fully updated to reflect the latest WHO, European, UK and US standards, including the European Water Framework Directive. The structure of the book has been changed to give increased emphasis to environmental aspects of water supply, in particular the critical issue of waste reduction and conservation of supplies. Written for both the professionals and students, this book is essential reading for anyone working in water engineering. •Comprehensive coverage of all aspects of public water supply and treatment •Details of US, European and WHO standards and practice •Based on decades of practical professional experience
The occurrence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water has been an issue of major concern during several decades. The formation of many DBPs species during water disinfection has been documented, while new by-products are still being detected, as the analytical instrumentation available becomes more accurate and sensitive. Most of the DBPs have been proven to have toxic effects on living organisms; therefore they pose risks to human health during drinking water consumption. The factors affecting their formation have been extensively investigated, their transport and fate have been studied, modelling efforts for several of them have been performed, in order to understand better their behaviour and therefore try to minimise their occurrence in waters. Techniques for their removal from water have also been applied, and a variety of disinfection methods or combinations of disinfecting agents have been investigated with the aim to produce safe drinking water containing the minimum possible concentrations of DBPs. This book deals with the advances in control of DBPs in drinking water systems. Further than an providing an overview of existing disinfection techniques and by-products, up-to-date information on the parameters affecting the procedures of DBPs formation, analytical methods for their determination, toxicity, regulation, it pays special emphasis on the advanced treatment methods applied recently for DBPs control and presents recent promising findings as well as case studies in this field, as the relevant research is proceeding, producing more knowledge and practical solutions in regard to the disinfected drinking water quality.
Release on 2005-04-30 | by Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht,Jonathan Clement
Author: Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht,Jonathan Clement
Pubpsher: IWA Publishing
Wastewater and drinking water treatment are essential elements of urban infrastructure. In the course of the last century there has been enormous technical development, so successful that for the general public in industrialized countries this infrastructure is hardly noticed. Nevertheless there is ongoing activity to further improve the existing processes. The IWA Leading Edge Technology conference held in Prague helped to stimulate this development and this book helps disseminate the results. A selection of presentations from the conference are included in this volume. Wastewater and drinking-water treatment are normally considered as two separate fields due to the very different boundary conditions that apply. Nevertheless several issues such as membrane processes, removal of micropollutants and water reuse are of crucial importance to both. This potential for cross-fertilization further enhances the value of this collection of high-quality articles that delineate the leading edge of research and development in water and wastewater treatment.
Release on 2007-06 | by Simon A. Parsons,Bruce Jefferson,Peter J. Jarvis,David W. Dixon,Emma Sharp
Author: Simon A. Parsons,Bruce Jefferson,Peter J. Jarvis,David W. Dixon,Emma Sharp
Pubpsher: American Water Works Association
The overall aim of the project was to identify treatment strategies for dealing with elevated organic carbon levels in terms of organic load reduction and floc characteristics at elevated loads, and specifically to identify: the conditions under which conventional and alternative processes are suitable for use in the treatment of waters with a higher organic load, the effect of organic content on floc size, structure, strength, growth and break up, the effects of changes in floc structure on removal in physiochemical processes.
Release on 2008 | by Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff
Occurrence, Formation, Health Effects, and Control
Author: Tanju Karanfil,Stuart W. Krasner,Yuefeng Xie,Paul Westerhoff
Pubpsher: Amer Chemical Society
Since their discovery, disinfection by-products (DBPs) have become one of the major driving forces in drinking water regulations, research and water utility operations throughout the world. The list of DBPs that can occur in treated drinking waters has grown from a few trihalomethanes to a long list of halogenated and non-halogenated organic or inorganic compounds. This list is expected to continue to grow as the analytical techniques are improved, as more information on their toxicity is developed, and as more occurrence studies are conducted. This book documents the latest DBP research findings, including emerging issues and state-of-the-art studies. Specifically, papers on the occurrence, formation, control, and health effects of emerging (unregulated) halogenated (e.g., brominated) and nonhalogenated (e.g., nitrosamines) DBPs (e.g., emerging nitrogenous vs. regulated carbonaceous DBPs) are presented. In addition to the characterization and reactivity of natural organic matter to form DBPs, new studies on algal organic matter and treated wastewater as sources of DBPs and their precursors are discussed.
This is the second of two volumes that presents the results of a cooperative research effort between industry, academia, utilities to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment effectiveness of a wide range of technologies for arsenic removal. (Volume 1; ISBN: 1-58321-310-4; published Feb 2004) This 2nd volume focuses on larger-scale in-situ demonstration testing of the major technologies reviewed in Volume 1, plus several additional technologies. Objectives were to describe the underlying chemical and physical controls over arsenic removal, consider the operational performance parameters and anticipate where improvements might occur. Sponsored by Arsenic Research Partnership, AWWRF, USEPA, and ACWA.