This is a catalogue of church, chapel and monastery mosaic pavements discovered within the borders of Israel and the Palestinian Territories (Roman Palestine). Chronologically, it spans the early 4th to 8th centuries, the latter period seemingly designating the cessation of mosaic manufacture in early Christian edifices in Palestine based on current archaeological findings. Sites are arranged alphabetically and according to the four Roman provinces that encompassed the region, and to which it is believed each originally belonged. The primary name chosen for each site (in most cases) correlates with the site name used in the indispensable gazetteer Tabula Imperii Romani Iudaea Palaestina (1994), allowing for relatively simple site identification and cross-referencing. In order to simplify the mosaic design descriptions, the catalogue utilises a system of geometric pattern coding. For each site, a map reference is given for the Israel Grid, followed by a brief outline of its excavation or survey, a thorough description of the pavements including the coding system, inscriptions (if present), a commentary including proposed dates (if given) and bibliography. The indexes include a concise list of occurrences for each pattern code, figural designs and iconoclastic damage; for inscriptions, ecclesiastical titles, named mosaicists and cited provincial dating eras.
A sweeping new history of how climate change and disease helped bring down the Roman Empire Here is the monumental retelling of one of the most consequential chapters of human history: the fall of the Roman Empire. The Fate of Rome is the first book to examine the catastrophic role that climate change and infectious diseases played in the collapse of Rome’s power—a story of nature’s triumph over human ambition. Interweaving a grand historical narrative with cutting-edge climate science and genetic discoveries, Kyle Harper traces how the fate of Rome was decided not just by emperors, soldiers, and barbarians but also by volcanic eruptions, solar cycles, climate instability, and devastating viruses and bacteria. He takes readers from Rome’s pinnacle in the second century, when the empire seemed an invincible superpower, to its unraveling by the seventh century, when Rome was politically fragmented and materially depleted. Harper describes how the Romans were resilient in the face of enormous environmental stress, until the besieged empire could no longer withstand the combined challenges of a “little ice age” and recurrent outbreaks of bubonic plague. A poignant reflection on humanity’s intimate relationship with the environment, The Fate of Rome provides a sweeping account of how one of history’s greatest civilizations encountered and endured, yet ultimately succumbed to the cumulative burden of nature’s violence. The example of Rome is a timely reminder that climate change and germ evolution have shaped the world we inhabit—in ways that are surprising and profound.
Release on 2019-01-21 | by David K. Pettegrew,William R. Caraher,Thomas W. Davis
Author: David K. Pettegrew,William R. Caraher,Thomas W. Davis
Pubpsher: Oxford Handbooks
"This handbook brings together work by leading scholars of the archaeology of early Christianity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The 34 essays to this volume ground the history, culture, and society of the first seven centuries of Christianity in the latest currents of archaeological method, theory, and research."--
Inscribing Faith in Late Antiquity considers the Greek and Latin texts inscribed in churches and chapels in the late antique Mediterranean (c. 300–800 CE), compares them to similar texts from pagan, Jewish, and Muslim spaces of worship, and explores how they functioned both textually and visually. These texts not only recorded the names and prayers of the faithful, but were powerful verbal and visual statements of cultural values and religious beliefs, conveying meaning through their words as well as through their appearances. In fact, the two were intimately connected. All of these texts – Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and pagan – acted visually, embracing their own materiality as mosaic, paint, or carved stone. Colourful and artfully arranged, the inscriptions framed human relationships with the divine, encouraged responses from readers, and made prayers material. In the first in-depth examination of the inscriptions as words and as images, the author reimagines the range of aesthetic, cultural, and religious experiences that were possible in spaces of worship. Inscribing Faith in Late Antiquity is essential reading for those interested in Roman, late antique, and Byzantine material and visual culture, inscriptions and other texts, and religious life in the ancient Mediterranean.