Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae

This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae. Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Biofuels from Algae

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Biomass, Biofuels and Biochemicals: Biofuels from Algae, Second Edition provides information on strategies for commercial microalgae based biofuel production, including their cultivation, pre-treatment and conversion methods. The book discusses methods for producing microalgal biomass in large scale by outdoor culturing and outlines new technologies for their use. In addition, it explains how modern genetic engineering enables the generation of recombinant strains that generate higher quantities of feedstock. The complete utilization of microalgal biomass, which can also be obtained from valorizing nutrients from wastewater and industrial exhaust gases, can be efficiently converted to energy rich biofuels and high value pharmaceuticals in a well-defined biorefinery. Includes the current technologies for the cultivation and conversion of energy rich microalgal biomass into biofuels Provides information on all the conversion methods – biochemical and thermochemical conversions Covers other high value products from microalgae and less conventional applications, such as fine chemical production and aviation fuel generation Discusses the economics of microalgal biofuel production and how to accomplish cost competitive results

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 7. Production of Biofuels from Algal Biomass by Fast Pyrolysis

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuel production from microalgae has been gaining importance in recent years as an alternative (nonpolluting) fuel source, but the industry faces economic challenges. In this context, a feasible technology of bio-oil production from microalgal biomass through fast pyrolysis is presented in this chapter. A microalga was cultivated in a cheap ethanol-wastewater-based medium, harvested, dried, and subjected to fast pyrolysis, the conditions of which were controlled to generate high yield of bio-oil. Bio-oil yield was 17.4% (m/m), with lower heating value (LHV) of 8,071kcal/kg. Volumetric energetic density was then calculated as 9,927.33kcal/L. Besides bio-oil, coal (10.8% m/m), acid extract (32.3% m/m), and gases (39.5% m/m) were produced. This technology combined low cost and simplicity of operation, turning fast pyrolysis of microalgae into a potential alternative in the free-carbon-emission fuel production process.

Biofuels from Algae

Methods and Protocols

Biofuels from Algae

This volume provides a comprehensive overview of different ways to grow algae and the techniques used to start algal cultivation, monitor algal growth, environmental impact of growing algae, and various methods for characterizing the biomass. The chapters in this book discuss a range of topics such as step-by-step protocols on how to isolate and grow algae; descriptions on how to use fluorescence to estimate algal biomass and lipid content; and instructions on using advanced techniques to determine the carbohydrates and lipids in algal biomass. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Biofuels from Algae: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for novice and experienced researchers who want to learn more about this impactful and developing field.

Algae for Biofuels and Energy

Algae for Biofuels and Energy

Microalgae are one of the most studied potential sources of biofuels and bioenergy. This book covers the key steps in the production of renewable biofuels from microalgae - strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilisation, lipid metabolism and quality, hydrogen production, genetic engineering, biomass harvesting, extraction. Greenhouse gas and techno-economic modelling are reviewed as is the 100 year history of microalgae as sources of biofuels and of commercial-scale microalgae culture. A summary of relevant basic standard methods used in the study of microalgae culture is provided. The book is intended for the expert and those starting work in the field.​

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 8. Algae Oils as Fuels

Biofuels from Algae

Biologically produced fuels are considered potential and viable alternatives to meet the world’s fuel requirements. In this context, algal-based oil is of significant importance due to its renewable and carbon-neutral nature. Biosynthesis of triglycerides by utilizing CO2 (by biofixation) or wastewater under stress conditions via photoautotrophic, heterotrophic (photo/dark), or mixotrophic mechanisms enumerates the potential of microalgae for generation of renewable biodiesel. In addition to the algal cultivation, the conversion of the accumulated lipids to biodiesel is gaining considerable interest. Though there exist some constraints, the process of harnessing biofuel from microalgae is both economically viable and environmentally sustainable compared to the other oil-producing terrestrial crops. This chapter explores biofuel production using microalgae. Concerted efforts are made in this chapter to discuss the biochemistry pertaining to algal lipid synthesis, nutritional modes of algae, cultivation systems used for algal oil production, and the cascade of steps involved, from biomass cultivation to transesterification of the fuel. The ability of microalgae to capture CO2 and its survivability in wastewater is also elaborated in the context of lipid synthesis.

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 5. Algal Biomass Harvesting

Biofuels from Algae

Extensive effort is being made globally to develop various biofuels as an inexhaustible and renewable energy source. Biofuels are viewed as promising alternatives to conventional fossil fuels because they have the potential to eliminate major environmental problems such as global warming and climate change created by fossil fuels. Among the still-developing biofuel technologies, biodiesel production from algae offers a good prospect for large-scale practical use, considering the fact that algae are capable of producing much more yield than other biofuels such as corn and soybean crops. Although research on algae-based biofuel is still in its developing stage, extensive work on laboratory- and pilot-scale algae-harvesting systems with promising prospects has been reported. This chapter presents a discussion of the literature review of recent advances in algal biomass harvesting. The chapter focuses on stability and separability of algae and algae-harvesting methods. Challenges and prospects of algae harvesting are also outlined. The review aims to provide useful information for future development of efficient and commercially viable algal biodiesel production.

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 10. Applications of Spent Biomass

Biofuels from Algae

There are several difficulties in developing algal biofuels that can fully replace fossil fuels; the main challenges relate to lower environmental impact (including the possibility of CO2 sequestering and wastewater treatment) and economic feasibility. To date, most studies have focused on selection of species, coupled with optimization of cultivation, biomass harvest and fuel extraction; efforts on enhancing environmental benefits and upgrading spent biomass are thus in order. Industry should indeed adopt an integrated strategy inspired by algal-based biorefineries – toward maximizing the economic return of all products present in algal biomass, by recovering high value compounds prior to biofuel manufacture, and using the remainder for aquaculture/land animal feed and production of other biofuels via supplementary fermentation.

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 1. An Open Pond System for Microalgal Cultivation

Biofuels from Algae

Microalgal biomasses have a long history of industrial production for application in a variety of fields. The success of commercial large-scale production of microalgae depends on many factors, one which is the development of cost-effective systems. Open pond reactors are the most widely used system in large-scale microalgal cultivation due to their low cost of construction, maintenance, and operation. However, closed photobioreactors have a high photosynthetic efficiency and biomass productivity. This study presents the advantages and disadvantages of open ponds compared with other photobioreactors and examines the factors that affect the cultures and their bioproducts.

Biofuels from Algae

Chapter 12. Scale-Up and Commercialization of Algal Cultivation and Biofuel Production

Biofuels from Algae

Algae are currently being considered as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production because of their fast growth rate and high biomass productivity. Algae could simultaneously act as a carbon sink and water purifier if their cultivation were coupled with flue gas and wastewater treatment, respectively. Hence, an understanding of the overall supply chains for algal biofuel production is exceptionally important to determine whether it is worthwhile to scale up and commercialize algal cultivation for biofuel production. In this chapter, various aspects and constraints associated with the commercialization of algal biofuels are deliberated in detail, especially from the perspective of life-cycle energy balance. In addition, discussions on the economic assessments of algal biofuels are included in this chapter to provide an overview of the current state of algal biofuels in the fuel market. Potential algal biofuel conversion technologies, such as transesterification, starch hydrolysis and fermentation, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction are also presented.