Bioremediation is defined as “the use of biologically mediated processes to
detoxify, degrade or transform pollutants to an innocuous state” (Gkorezis et al.
2016). This approach takes advantage of the capacity of many microorganisms to
Author: Ram Prasad
Bioremediation refers to the clean‐up of pollution in soil, groundwater, surface water, and air using typically microbiological processes. It uses naturally occurring bacteria and fungi or plants to degrade, transform or detoxify hazardous substances to human health or the environment. For bioremediation to be effective, microorganisms must enzymatically attack the pollutants and convert them to harmless products. As bioremediation can be effective only where environmental conditions permit microbial growth and action, its application often involves the management of ecological factors to allow microbial growth and degradation to continue at a faster rate. Like other technologies, bioremediation has its limitations. Some contaminants, such as chlorinated organic or high aromatic hydrocarbons, are resistant to microbial attack. They are degraded either gradually or not at all, hence, it is not easy to envisage the rates of clean-up for bioremediation implementation. Bioremediation represents a field of great expansion due to the important development of new technologies. Among them, several decades on metagenomics expansion has led to the detection of autochthonous microbiota that plays a key role during transformation. Transcriptomic guides us to know the expression of key genes and proteomics allow the characterization of proteins that conduct specific reactions. In this book we show specific technologies applied in bioremediation of main interest for research in the field, with special attention on fungi, which have been poorly studied microorganisms. Finally, new approaches in the field, such as CRISPR-CAS9, are also discussed. Lastly, it introduces management strategies, such as bioremediation application for managing affected environment and bioremediation approaches. Examples of successful bioremediation applications are illustrated in radionuclide entrapment and retardation, soil stabilization and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, plastics or fluorinated compounds. Other emerging bioremediation methods include electro bioremediation, microbe-availed phytoremediation, genetic recombinant technologies in enhancing plants in accumulation of inorganic metals, and metalloids as well as degradation of organic pollutants, protein-metabolic engineering to increase bioremediation efficiency, including nanotechnology applications are also discussed.
Bioremediation of organic compounds: putting microbial metabolism to work.
Trends Biotechnol. 11:360– 367. 8. Brusseau, M. L., R. E. Jessup, and P. S. C.
Rao. 1991. Nonequilibrium sorption of organic chemicals: Elucidation of
Author: Raffi Fass
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Proceedings of the 42nd OHOLO Conference held in Eilat, Israel, May 3-7, 1998
It is a challenge for researchers to stay abreast of this rapidly advancing field,
particularly in light of the diversity of environments and contaminants, as well as
the varied approaches to bioremediation that have emerged in recent years.
Author: Ronald L. Crawford
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Increased industrial and agricultural activity this century has led to vast quantities of the earth's soil and groundwater resources becoming contaminated with hazardous chemicals. Bioremediation provides a technology based on the use of living organisms, usually bacteria and fungi, to remove pollutants from soil and water, preferably in situ. This approach, which is potentially more cost-effective than traditional techniques such as incineration of soils and carbon filtration of water, requires an understanding of how organisms transform chemicals, how they survive in polluted environments and how they should be employed in the field. This book examines these issues for many of the most serious and common environmental contaminants, resulting in a volume which presents the most recent position on the application of bioremediation to the cleanup of polluted soil and water.
Bioremediation is the use of biological organisms to solve an environmental
problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater. Bioremediation is the use of
living microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants or to prevent pollution
Author: Ram Naresh Bharagava
Publisher: CRC Press
This book is a compilation of detailed and latest knowledge on the various types of environmental pollutants released from various natural as well as anthropogenic sources, their toxicological effects in environments, humans, animals and plants as well as various bioremediation approaches for their safe disposal into the environments. In this book, an extensive focus has been made on the various types of environmental pollutants discharged from various sources, their toxicological effects in environments, humans, animals and plants as well as their biodegradation and bioremediation approaches for environmental cleanup.
Innovative technologies, including in situ bioremediation, are being developed
and implemented in an effort to reduce the ... Section 3 describes the types of
technologies used for in situ bioremediation, including approaches used to
Approach. in. Bioremediation. Puneet Kumar Singha, Jahangir Imama,b and
Pratyoosh Shuklaa,Ã aEnzyme Technology and Protein Bioinformatics
Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak,
Author: Surajit Das
Microbial Biodegradation and Bioremediation brings together experts in relevant fields to describe the successful application of microbes and their derivatives for bioremediation of potentially toxic and relatively novel compounds. This single-source reference encompasses all categories of pollutants and their applications in a convenient, comprehensive package. Our natural biodiversity and environment is in danger due to the release of continuously emerging potential pollutants by anthropogenic activities. Though many attempts have been made to eradicate and remediate these noxious elements, every day thousands of xenobiotics of relatively new entities emerge, thus worsening the situation. Primitive microorganisms are highly adaptable to toxic environments, and can reduce the load of toxic elements by their successful transformation and remediation. Describes many novel approaches of microbial bioremediation including genetic engineering, metagenomics, microbial fuel cell technology, biosurfactants and biofilm-based bioremediation Introduces relatively new hazardous elements and their bioremediation practices including oil spills, military waste water, greenhouse gases, polythene wastes, and more Provides the most advanced techniques in the field of bioremediation, including insilico approach, microbes as pollution indicators, use of bioreactors, techniques of pollution monitoring, and more
2 RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO BIOREMEDIATION IN SALT MARSHES
Existing studies have demonstrated that oil biodegradation on marine wetlands is
often limited by oxygen, not nutrient availability. Natural attenuation is ...
Therefore, established approaches for bioremediation of these contaminants
involve the continual addition of chemicals, ... The main perceived limitation of
this approach is that adding the appropriate amounts of electron donors without ...
Author: Rita Hochstrat
Publisher: IWA Publishing
The European project MINOTAURUS explored innovative bio-processes to eliminate emerging and classic organic pollutants. These bio-processes are all based on the concept of immobilization of biocatalysts (microorganisms and enzymes) and encompass bioaugmentation, enzyme technology, rhizoremediation with halophytes, and a bioelectrochemical remediation process. The immobilization-based technologies are applied as engineered ex situ treatment systems as well as natural systems in situ for the bioremediation of groundwater, wastewater and soil. The selection and application of tailored physico-chemical, molecularbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring tools combined with a rational understanding of engineering, enzymology and microbial physiology is a pertinent approach to open the black-box of the selected technologies. Reliable process monitoring constitutes the basis for developing and refining biodegradation kinetics models, which in turn improve the predictability of performances to be achieved with technologies. Immobilised Biocatalysts for Bioremediation of Groundwater and Wastewater delivers insight into the concepts and performance of a series of remediation approaches. A key strength of this book is to deliver results from lab-scale through to piloting at different European reference sites. It further suggests frameworks for structuring and making evidence-based decisions for the most appropriate bioremediation measures.
The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging technologies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation.
Author: Václav Sasek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Traditional reliance on chemical analysis to understand the direction and extent of treatment in a bioremediation process has been found to be inadequate. Whereas the goal of bioremediation is toxicity reduction, few direct, reliable measures of this process are as yet available. Another area of intense discussion is the assessment of market forces contributing to the acceptability of bioremediation. Finally, another important component is a series of lectures and lively exchanges devoted to practical applications of different bioremediation technologies. The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging technologies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Each technology is explored for its utility and capability to provide desired treatment goals. Advantages and limitations of each technology are discussed. The concept of natural attenuation is also critically evaluated since in some cases where time to remediation is not a significant factor, it may be an alternative to active bioremediation operations.
In this chapter, we will discuss approaches to bioremediation of recalcitrant
xenobiotic chemicals, specifically approaches that employ a combination of
chemical (or physical) and biological steps to increase the efficacy of
Author: Ajay Singh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The diverse metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and their interactions with hazardous organic and inorganic compounds have long been recognized. Microbial processes are environmentally compatible and can be integrated with non-biological processes to detoxify, degrade and immobilize environmental contaminants. Bioremediation, the application of biological methods, has been used successfully for soil remediation. For this volume, a number of experts from universities, government laboratories and industry, share their specialist knowledge in environmental microbiology and biotechnology. Chapters dealing with microbiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of biodegradation and bioremediation cover numerous topics, including: bioavailability, biodegradation of various pollutants, microbial community dynamics, properties and engineering of important biocatalysts, and methods for monitoring bioremediation processes.