who is rational

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Who Is Rational

Author : Keith E. Stanovich
ISBN : 9781135687564
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 61. 83 MB
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Integrating a decade-long program of empirical research with current cognitive theory, this book demonstrates that psychological research has profound implications for current debates about what it means to be rational. The author brings new evidence to bear on these issues by demonstrating that patterns of individual differences--largely ignored in disputes about human rationality--have strong implications for explanations of the gap between normative and descriptive models of human behavior. Separate chapters show how patterns of individual differences have implications for all of the major critiques of purported demonstrations of human irrationality in the heuristics and biases literature. In these critiques, it has been posited that experimenters have observed performance errors rather than systematically irrational responses; the tasks have required computational operations that exceed human cognitive capacity; experimenters have applied the wrong normative model to the task; and participants have misinterpreted the tasks. In a comprehensive set of studies, Stanovich demonstrates that gaps between normative and descriptive models of performance on some tasks can be accounted for by positing these alternative explanations, but that not all discrepancies from normative models can be so explained. Individual differences in rational thought can in part be predicted by psychological dispositions that are interpreted as characteristic biases in people's intentional-level psychologies. Presenting the most comprehensive examination of individual differences in the heuristics and biases literature that has yet been published, experiments and theoretical insights in this volume contextualize the heuristics and biases literature exemplified in the work of various investigators.

The Faith Of One God Who Is Only The Father And Of One Mediator Between God And Men Who Is Only The Man Christ Jesus And Of One Holy Spirit The Gift And Sent Of God

Author :
ISBN : BSB:BSB10350783
Genre :
File Size : 87. 55 MB
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William L Rowe On Philosophy Of Religion

Author : William L. Rowe
ISBN : 075465558X
Genre : Religion
File Size : 70. 84 MB
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The present collection brings together for the first time Rowe's most significant contributions to the philosophy of religion. This diverse but representative selection of Rowe's writings will provide students, professional scholars as well as general readers with stimulating and accessible discussions on such topics as the philosophical theology of Paul Tillich, the problem of evil, divine freedom, arguments for the existence of God, religious experience, life after death, and religious pluralism.

Rational Consensus In Science And Society

Author : Keith Lehrer
ISBN : 9789400985209
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 48. 60 MB
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TItis book is the joint project of a philosopher, Lehrer, and a mathematician, Wagner. The book is, therefore, divided into a first part written by Lehrer, which is primarily philosophical, and a second part written by Wagner that is primarily formal. The authors were, however, influenced by each other throughout. Our book articulates a theory of rational consensus in science and society. The theory is applied to politics, ethics, science, and language. We begin our exposition with an elementary mathematical model of consensus developed by Lehrer in a series of articles [1976a, 1976b, 1977, 1978]. Chapter 3 contains material from [1978]. Lehrer formulated the elementary model when he was a Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Be havioral Sciences, Stanford, in 1973 with the invaluable mathematical assist of Kit Fine, Gerald Kramer and Lionel McKenzie. In the summer of ance 1977, Lehrer and Wagner met at the Center in a Summer Seminar on Freedom and Causality supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Wagner read the manuscript of Lehrer [1978] and subsequently solved some mathematical problems of the elementary model. After discussions of philosophical prob lems associated with that model, Wagner developed the foundations for the extended model. These results were reported in Wagner [1978, 1981a].

Moral Skepticisms

Author : Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
ISBN : 9780199884889
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 76. 47 MB
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All contentious moral issues--from gay marriage to abortion and affirmative action--raise difficult questions about the justification of moral beliefs. How can we be justified in holding on to our own moral beliefs while recognizing that other intelligent people feel quite differently and that many moral beliefs are distorted by self-interest and by corrupt cultures? Even when almost everyone agrees--e.g. that experimental surgery without consent is immoral--can we know that such beliefs are true? If so, how? These profound questions lead to fundamental issues about the nature of morality, language, metaphysics, justification, and knowledge. They also have tremendous practical importance in handling controversial moral questions in health care ethics, politics, law, and education. Sinnott-Armstrong here provides an extensive overview of these difficult subjects, looking at a wide variety of questions, including: Are any moral beliefs true? Are any justified? What is justified belief? The second half of the book explores various moral theories that have grappled with these issues, such as naturalism, normativism, intuitionism, and coherentism, all of which are attempts to answer moral skepticism. Sinnott-Armstrong argues that all these approaches fail to rule out moral nihilism--the view that nothing is really morally wrong or right, bad or good. Then he develops his own novel theory,--"moderate Pyrrhonian moral skepticism"--which concludes that some moral beliefs can be justified out of a modest contrast class but no moral beliefs can be justified out of an extreme contrast class. While explaining this original position and criticizing alternatives, Sinnott-Armstrong provides a wide-ranging survey of the epistemology of moral beliefs.

She Who Is Unto Herself

Author : Sam Red
ISBN : 9781785071935
Genre : Self-Help
File Size : 71. 18 MB
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Unless we have already become enlightened gods and goddesses, we all have needs for security, love, belonging, etc. Sometimes our needs and desires are not met by our life circumstances, which can make us feel distressed, discouraged, overwhelmed, etc. Using examples from her own life, and referring to tantric, taoist and other theoretical frameworks, Sam Red encourages us to become the master of our reactions and responses. She proposes techniques based on mindfulness, relaxation, hope/faith, connecting with nature, loving with awareness and accepting suffering. Moreover, she asks us to explore our identity beyond what we know of ourselves as rational, emotional beings so that we can live our lives in a more empowered and self-sustaining way.

Contractarianism And Rational Choice

Author : Peter Vallentyne
ISBN : 0521391342
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 60. 40 MB
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In this anthology, prominent moral and political philosophers offer a critical assessment of Gauthier's theory.

Rationality And The Analysis Of International Conflict

Author : Michael Nicholson
ISBN : 052139810X
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 55. 96 MB
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This book covers the problems of rational decision-making in conflict situations.

The Hellenistic Philosophers Volume 1 Translations Of The Principal Sources With Philosophical Commentary

Author : A. A. Long
ISBN : 0521275563
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 21. 32 MB
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Volume 1 presents the texts in new translations by the authors, accompanied by a philosophical and historical commentary.

Politics As Rational Action

Author : L. Lewin
ISBN : 9789400989559
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 75. 9 MB
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One of the most promising trends in modem political science is the develop ment of a theory of politics as rational action. Focussing on choice as the central topic of study, rational choice theorists set out to specify what alter native an actor should prefer if he has some given knowledge of the conse quences of each alternative and wants to see his preference system as fully realized as possible. But rational choice theory is not confmed to the norma tive sphere of science. It can also be used for explanatory purposes. Then, the alternatives actually chosen are specified and the task is to explain the decisions by fmding out what considerations lay behind them. The starting point for an emerging research program at the Department of Government, Uppsala University, on 'Politics as Rational Action' is to describe the major choices in fifteen different policy areas of Swedish domes tic politics and explain why they were made.

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