when victims become killers colonialism nativism and the genocide in rwanda

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When Victims Become Killers

Author : Mahmood Mamdani
ISBN : 9781400851720
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 37. 69 MB
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"When we captured Kigali, we thought we would face criminals in the state; instead, we faced a criminal population." So a political commissar in the Rwanda Patriotic Front reflected after the 1994 massacre of as many as one million Tutsis in Rwanda. Underlying his statement is the realization that, though ordered by a minority of state functionaries, the slaughter was performed by hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens, including even judges, human rights activists, and doctors, nurses, priests, friends, and spouses of the victims. Indeed, it is its very popularity that makes the Rwandan genocide so unthinkable. This book makes it thinkable. Rejecting easy explanations of the genocide as a mysterious evil force that was bizarrely unleashed, one of Africa's best-known intellectuals situates the tragedy in its proper context. He coaxes to the surface the historical, geographical, and political forces that made it possible for so many Hutu to turn so brutally on their neighbors. He finds answers in the nature of political identities generated during colonialism, in the failures of the nationalist revolution to transcend these identities, and in regional demographic and political currents that reach well beyond Rwanda. In so doing, Mahmood Mamdani usefully broadens understandings of citizenship and political identity in postcolonial Africa. There have been few attempts to explain the Rwandan horror, and none has succeeded so well as this one. Mamdani's analysis provides a solid foundation for future studies of the massacre. Even more important, his answers point a way out of crisis: a direction for reforming political identity in central Africa and preventing future tragedies.

Who Must Die In Rwanda S Genocide

Author : Kyrsten Sinema
ISBN : 9781498518659
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 72. 77 MB
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This book analyzes the hundred-year development of the “state of exception” in Rwanda, a political theory developed and expanded by Foucault, Agamben, and others. It analyzes Hutu regime propaganda utilized to dehumanize the Tutsi population and how state action created a setting for genocide to become an appropriate reaction to political threats.

Inequalities And Conflicts In Modern And Contemporary African History

Author : Jan Záhořík
ISBN : 9781498536424
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 38. 40 MB
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This book examines historical legacies and contexts of inequalities and conflicts in Africa. The book argues that we must study conflicts, inequalities, and other social, economic, and political imbalances in broad global and historical contexts.

The Violence Of Victimhood

Author : Diane Enns
ISBN : 9780271052434
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57. 96 MB
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"Analyzes current understandings of victimhood in discussions of child soldiers, identity politics, violent conflict, and global responses to atrocity."--

Stopping Wars And Making Peace

Author : Kristen E. Eichensehr
ISBN : 9789004178557
Genre : Law
File Size : 54. 21 MB
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War-stopping techniques in the Falklands / Christina Parajon -- Nagorno Karabakh : a war without peace / Nicholas W. Miller -- War and peace in Rwanda / Tom Dannenbaum -- War-stopping and peacemaking in Mozambique / Caroline Gross.

A Biographical Encyclopedia Of Contemporary Genocide Portraits Of Evil And Good

Author : Paul R. Bartrop
ISBN : 9780313386794
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 52. 68 MB
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This book documents the devastating effects of genocide in the world's most destructive human environments since the end of World War II and explores why such events still occur.

Britain S Hidden Role In The Rwandan Genocide

Author : Hazel Cameron
ISBN : 9781136287404
Genre : Law
File Size : 65. 27 MB
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Britain’s Hidden Role in the Rwandan Genocide examines the role of the United Kingdom as a global elite bystander to the crime of genocide, and its complicity, in violation of international criminal laws during the Rwandan genocide of 1994. As prevailing accounts confine themselves to the role and actions of the United States and the United Nations, the full picture of Rwanda’s genocide has yet to be revealed. Hazel Cameron demonstrates that it is the unravelling of the criminal role and actions of the British that illuminates a more detailed answer to the question of ‘why’ the genocide in Rwanda occurred. In this book, she provides a systematic and detailed analysis of the policies of the British Government towards civil unrest in Rwanda throughout the 1990s that culminated in genocide. Utilising documentary evidence obtained as a result of Freedom of Information requests to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, as well as material obtained through extensive interviews - with British government cabinet members, diplomats, Ambassadors to the United Nations Security Council, prisoners in Rwanda convicted of being leaders and organisers of genocide, and victims and survivors of genocide in Rwanda – the author finds that the actions of the British and French governments, both before and during the Rwandan genocide of 1994, were disassociated from human rights norms. It is suggested herein that the decision-making of the Major government during the period of 1990 – 1994 was for the advancement of the interrelated goals of maintaining power status and ensuring economic interests in key areas of Africa. This account of the legal culpability of the powerful within the corridors of government, in both London and Paris, shows that these behaviours cannot be conceptualised under existing notions of state crime. This book serves to illuminate the inadequacies and limitations of a concept of state crime in international law as it currently stands, and will be of considerable interest to anyone concerned with the misuse of state power.

Violence

Author : Parvis Ghassem-Fachandi
ISBN : 9781847886255
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35. 3 MB
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Violence takes many forms. From large-scale acts of terrorism to assaults on single individuals, violence is a defining force in shaping human experience and a central theme in anthropological study. Violence: Ethnographic Encounters presents a set of vivid first-hand accounts of fieldwork experiences of violence. The examples range across Latin America, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, and illustrate instances of state terror, insurgency, communal violence, war, prison violence, class conflict, security measures, and sexual violence. How do these anthropologists come to know a place through such violent experience? Why do they not leave such scenes? What insights follow from such experience? Violence: Ethnographic Encounters offers readers a broad anthropological study of violence through personal encounters.

Public Memory Public Media And The Politics Of Justice

Author : P. Lee
ISBN : 9781137265173
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84. 27 MB
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Exposing how memory is constructed and mediated in different societies, this collection explores particular contexts to identify links between the politics of memory, media representations and the politics of justice, questioning what we think we know and understand about recent history.

German Colonialism

Author : Volker Langbehn
ISBN : 9780231520546
Genre : History
File Size : 61. 51 MB
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More than half a century before the mass executions of the Holocaust, Germany devastated the peoples of southwestern Africa. While colonialism might seem marginal to German history, new scholarship compares these acts to Nazi practices on the Eastern and Western fronts. With some of the most important essays from the past five years exploring the "continuity thesis," this anthology debates the links between German colonialist activities and the behavior of Germany during World War II. Some contributors argue the country's domination of southwestern Africa gave rise to perceptions of racial difference and superiority at home, building upon a nascent nationalism that blossomed into National Socialism and the Holocaust. Others remain skeptical and challenge the continuity thesis. The contributors also examine Germany's colonial past with debates over the country's identity and history and compare its colonial crimes with other European ventures. Other issues explored include the denial or marginalization of German genocide and the place of colonialism and the Holocaust within German and Israeli postwar relations.

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