water scarcity in the mediterranean perspectives under global change the handbook of environmental chemistry

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Water Scarcity In The Mediterranean

Author : Sergi Sabater
ISBN : 9783642039713
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89. 70 MB
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Water scarcity affects hydrologic resources, systems connectivity, biodiversity, water quality, and river ecosystem functioning. It has direct impacts on economic sectors that use and depend on water, such as agriculture, tourism, industry, energy and transport. The Mediterranean Basin is one of the regions in the world most vulnerable to climate changes, as well as one of the most impacted by human water demand. This volume provides an in-depth view of the water quality and quantity implications of water scarcity. It highlights its possible causes and describes the effects in regions under Mediterranean climate. The topics covered include climate effects, water resources (use, storage and new sources), water quality (chemical and microbiological), and the effects on ecosystems suffering from water scarcity. This book is addressed to scientists and students, but also to managers involved in the necessary decision making process to face future periods of drought.

Light In Forensic Science

Author : Mire Zloh
ISBN : 9781782627685
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 86 MB
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The identification and quantification of material present and collected at a crime scene are critical requirements in investigative analyses. Forensic analysts use a variety of tools and techniques to achieve this, many of which use light. Light is not always the forensic analyst’s friend however, as light can degrade samples and alter results. This book details the analysis of a range of molecular systems by light-based techniques relevant to forensic science, as well as the negative effects of light in the degradation of forensic evidence, such as the breakage of DNA linkages during DNA profiling. The introductory chapters explain how chemiluminescence and fluorescence can be used to visualise samples and the advantages and limitations of available technologies. They also discuss the limitations of our knowledge about how light could alter the physical nature of materials, for example by breaking DNA linkages during DNA profiling or by modifying molecular structures of polymers and illicit drugs. The book then explains how to detect, analyse and interpret evidence from materials such as illicit drugs, agents of bioterrorism, and textiles, using light-based techniques from microscopy to surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Edited by active photobiological and forensic scientists, this book will be of interest to students and researchers in the fields of photochemistry, photobiology, toxicology and forensic science.

Global Risk Based Management Of Chemical Additives Ii

Author : Bernd Bilitewski
ISBN : 9783642345722
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 35 MB
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Chemical additives are used to enhance the properties of many industrial products. Since their release into the environment is a potential risk for man and nature, their fate and behavior have been investigated in the framework of the European Union-funded project RISKCYCLE. The results are presented in two volumes, Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives I: Production, Usage and Environmental Occurrence and Global Risk-Based Management of Chemical Additives II: Risk-Based Assessment and Management Strategies. This book is the second of the two volumes and features two main parts. In the first part, experts in the field discuss different models related to the assessment of the potential risks posed by chemical additives and analyze their benefits and drawbacks. In the second part, specific case studies in which the models have been applied are presented and the reliability of the models is evaluated. This volume is an invaluable source of information for scientists and governmental agencies dealing with the risk assessment of chemicals on a global scale.

Chemical Structure Of Pelagic Redox Interfaces

Author : Evgeniy V. Yakushev
ISBN : 9783642321252
Genre : Science
File Size : 20. 36 MB
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Over the last few decades many studies have focused on the oxygen depletion of coastal and oceanic waters. An understanding of the processes involved is fundamental to assess the effects of global and climatic changes and to support an ecosystem approach to adaptive environmental management for coastal seas and ocean basins. This timely book presents the state-of-the-art of our knowledge of the nature and chemical structure of redox interfaces in a marine water column, oxygen depletion and connected processes. The structures of the redox layers, including the distribution of certain parameters and microbiological features, are described in detail. The volume also covers studies devoted to the interannual variability of some oxygen-depleted systems, modeling and new developments in observation techniques. In addition, it identifies remaining gaps in our knowledge of the cycling of chemical elements in changing redox conditions. The chapters are based on extensive observational data, collected by the authors during sea and shore expeditions, on archive data, and on a broad range of scientific literature.

Climate Change And Water Resources

Author : Tamim Younos
ISBN : 9783642375866
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 7 MB
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This volume presents nine chapters prepared by international authors and highlighting various aspects of climate change and water resources. Climate change models and scenarios, particularly those related to precipitation projection, are discussed and uncertainties and data deficiencies that affect the reliability of predictions are identified. The potential impacts of climate change on water resources (including quality) and on crop production are analyzed and adaptation strategies for crop production are offered. Furthermore, case studies of climate change mitigation strategies, such as the reduction of water use and conservation measures in urban environments, are included. This book will serve as a valuable reference work for researchers and students in water and environmental sciences, as well as for governmental agencies and policy makers.

Waste Water Treatment And Reuse In The Mediterranean Region

Author : Damià Barceló
ISBN : 9783642182815
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 84 MB
Format : PDF
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Water scarcity and the need for ecological sustainability have led to the introduction of treated waste water as an additional water resource in the national water resource management plans of Mediterranean countries. Summarizing the results generated within the European Union-funded project INNOVA-MED, this volume highlights the following topics: Application of innovative technologies and practices for waste water treatment and reuse adapted to the Mediterranean region Constraints on the application of advanced treatments and reuse of reclaimed water and sludge Problems and requirements of sustainable water management in the Mediterranean area The book includes several examples of Mediterranean countries, such as Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Palestine and Spain, and presents their practical experiences in the application of innovative processes and practices for waste water treatment and reuse.

Climate Change And Tourism

Author : Susanne Becken
ISBN : 9781136471742
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 83 MB
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The contribution of tourism to climate change, and the likely consequences of climate change for key tourist destinations, has been well reported and discussed. Yet, there is a lack of evidence-based systematic practical advice as to how the tourism industry should respond to the challenge of climate change. Building on a sound conceptual understanding of the links between climate change and tourism, this book shows how the tourism sector might best respond. It not only focuses on the roles of supportive policies and institutions in ensuring a strong "enabling environment" for practical responses, but also on the practical responses themselves. This practical approach is presented through a large number of case studies and examples which illustrate how policy and industry initiatives have been implemented in tourism, and if or why they were successful. The majority of examples come from places such as the Caribbean, Spain, the Maldives, Nepal, and the UK, as well as Australia, New Zealand and other parts of the Pacific. The examples are presented within an overall framework that facilitates the translation of adaptation and mitigation policies into practice. This book offers the tourism industry, students and academics the opportunity to advance from the earlier, more conceptual texts on tourism and climate change by taking a much more practical approach. Its global coverage, through the use of international case studies, fosters a cross-fertilisation of ideas and initiatives. This text provides a detailed analysis of best practices in the face of climate change, across countries and geographically diverse tourist destinations and operations.

Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author : Jos Brils
ISBN : 9783642385988
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69. 4 MB
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

Security And Environment In The Mediterranean

Author : Hans Günter Brauch
ISBN : 9783642558542
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 3 MB
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In this volume security specialists, peace researchers, environmental scholars, demographers as well as climate, desertification, water, food and urbanisation specialists from the Middle East and North Africa, Europe and North America review security and conflict prevention in the Mediterranean. They also analyse NATO’s Mediterranean security dialogue and offer conceptualisations on security and perceptions of security challenges as seen in North and South. The latter half of the book analyses environmental security and conflicts in the Mediterranean and environmental consequences of World War II, the Gulf War, the Balkan wars and the Middle East conflict. It also examines factors of global environmental change: population growth, climate change, desertification, water scarcity, food and urbanisation issues as well as natural disasters. Furthermore, it draws conceptual conclusions for a fourth phase of research on human and environmental security and peace as well as policy conclusions for cooperation and partnership in the Mediterranean in the 21st century.

Polyfluorinated Chemicals And Transformation Products

Author : Thomas P. Knepper
ISBN : 9783642218712
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 82 MB
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Due to their unparalleled effectiveness and efficiency, polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) have become essential in numerous technical applications. However, many PFCs brought to market show limited biodegradability, and their environmental persistence combined with toxic and bioaccumulative potential have become a matter of concern in some instances. This volume highlights the synthesis of PFCs, focusing on substances with improved application and environmental properties, which are a challenge for synthetic chemists. Further, modern mass spectrometric techniques for the detection and identification of biotransformation products of PFCs are described. The sorption and leaching behavior of PFC in soil is also addressed in order to predict their fate in the environment. Several contributions discuss the monitoring of PFCs in European surface, ground and drinking waters, treatment options for PFC removal from drinking water, occurrence in food, and the human biomonitoring of PFCs.

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