violence and restraint in civil war civilian targeting in the shadow of international law

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Violence And Restraint In Civil War

Author : Jessica A. Stanton
ISBN : 9781316720592
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 68. 24 MB
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Media coverage of civil wars often focuses on the most gruesome atrocities and the most extreme conflicts, which might lead one to think that all civil wars involve massive violence against civilians. In truth, many governments and rebel groups exercise restraint in their fighting, largely avoiding violence against civilians in compliance with international law. Governments and rebel groups make strategic calculations about whether to target civilians by evaluating how domestic and international audiences are likely to respond to violence. Restraint is also a deliberate strategic choice: governments and rebel groups often avoid targeting civilians and abide by international legal standards to appeal to domestic and international audiences for diplomatic support. This book presents a wide range of evidence of the strategic use of violence and restraint, using original data on violence against civilians in civil wars from 1989 to 2010 as well as in-depth analyses of conflicts in Azerbaijan, El Salvador, Indonesia, Sudan, Turkey, and Uganda.

Wars Of Law

Author : Tanisha M. Fazal
ISBN : 9781501719790
Genre : Law
File Size : 40. 37 MB
Format : PDF
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"This book assesses the unintended consequences of the proliferation of the laws of war for both interstate and civil wars over the past two centuries"--

The Commander S Dilemma

Author : Amelia Hoover Green
ISBN : 9781501726484
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 29 MB
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Why do some military and rebel groups commit many types of violence, creating an impression of senseless chaos, whereas others carefully control violence against civilians? A classic catch-22 faces the leaders of armed groups and provides the title for Amelia Hoover Green’s book. Leaders need large groups of people willing to kill and maim—but to do so only under strict control. How can commanders control violence when fighters who are not under direct supervision experience extraordinary stress, fear, and anger? The Commander’s Dilemma argues that discipline is not enough in wartime. Restraint occurs when fighters know why they are fighting and believe in the cause—that is, when commanders invest in political education. Drawing on extraordinary evidence about state and nonstate groups in El Salvador, and extending her argument to the Mano River wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, Amelia Hoover Green shows that investments in political education can improve human rights outcomes even where rational incentives for restraint are weak—and that groups whose fighters lack a sense of purpose may engage in massive violence even where incentives for restraint are strong. Hoover Green concludes that high levels of violence against civilians should be considered a "default setting," not an aberration.

The Future Of War

Author : Lawrence Freedman
ISBN : 9780141975610
Genre : History
File Size : 74. 66 MB
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A new approach to ideas about war, from one of the UK's leading strategic thinkers In 1912 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a short story about a war fought from underwater submersibles that included the sinking of passenger ships. It was dismissed by the British admirals of the day, not on the basis of technical feasibility, but because sinking civilian ships was not something that any civilised nation would do. The reality of war often contradicts expectations, less because of some fantastic technical or engineering dimension, but more because of some human, political, or moral threshold that we had never imagined would be crossed. As Lawrence Freedman shows, ideas about the causes of war and strategies for its conduct have rich and varied histories which shape predictions about the future. Freedman shows how looking at how the future of war was conceived about in the past (and why this was more often than not wrong) can put into perspective current thinking about future conflicts. The Future of War - which takes us from preparations for the world wars, through the nuclear age and the civil wars which became the focus for debate after the end of the Cold War, to present preoccupations with hybrid and cyber warfare - is filled with fascinating insights from one of the most brilliant military and strategic historians of his generation.

Von Der Verteidigung Zur Intervention

Author : Peter Strutynski
ISBN : STANFORD:36105122588150
Genre : Militarism
File Size : 43. 74 MB
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Der Totale Krieg

Author : Erich Ludendorff
ISBN : UOM:39015031512513
Genre : Military art and science
File Size : 45. 75 MB
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Den gamle general Erich Ludendorff fortæller om betingelserne for udførelsen af den såkaldte totale krig.

Die Neuen Kriege

Author : Herfried Münkler
ISBN : 349961653X
Genre : International relations
File Size : 55. 70 MB
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Soziologie Kapitalismus Kritik

Author : Klaus Dörre
ISBN : 9783518732342
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83. 19 MB
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Einst gehörte es zu den zentralen Aufgaben der Soziologie, die moderne Gesellschaft über die sozialen Voraussetzungen und Konsequenzen ihrer Krisenhaftigkeit aufzuklären. Diesem heute oft vernachlässigten Anliegen fühlen sich die Autoren dieses Bandes verpflichtet und stellen die Frage nach dem zeitdiagnostischen Potential soziologischer Analyse in den Mittelpunkt einer Debatte. Zeitdiagnostisch fundierte Gesellschaftskritik, so eine ihrer Thesen, gehört zum Kerngeschäft der Soziologie. Eine zweite besagt, daß jede Gesellschaftskritik der Gegenwart notwendig auch Kapitalismuskritik sein muß. Anhand von drei unterschiedlichen, aber komplementären Perspektiven auf aktuelle Prozesse der Landnahme, der Aktivierung und der Beschleunigung wird eine soziologische Kritik der Gegenwartsgesellschaft entfaltet, die zugleich Ansatzpunkte für politisches Handeln aufzeigt.

Menschlichkeit F R Alle

Author : Hans Haug
ISBN : NWU:35556022693493
Genre : Human rights
File Size : 81. 50 MB
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Rechtskultur

Author : Peter Mankowski
ISBN : 3161547926
Genre : Law
File Size : 27. 31 MB
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English summary: Legal culture has become a key notion in law and society. But how to describe it? How does it emerge? Where are its roots and foundations? Which elements constitute it? Peter Mankowski provides answers by highlighting its development and structures. Rather than establishing a grand theory, his work looks at different contexts and offers at its core a comparative-anecdotal approach to a complex, multifaceted notion. Aiming to provoke thought and encourage discussion, the author depicts the societal, religious and ideological traditions surrounding legal culture, which has to be dynamic to keep apace with progress in society, science and technology. An international phenomenon, legal culture looks at individuals and their relationships to society and community. Its often media influenced public perception and own image within the legal profession are further constituent parts. In short, legal culture is colourful and mirrors the vitality of law and life. German description: Rechtskultur ist ein zentraler Begriff in Recht und Gesellschaft. Was aber ist Rechtskultur? Wie entsteht Rechtskultur? Welche Facetten hat Rechtskultur? "Rechtskultur" ist ein Versuch, Antworten, Konturen und Strukturen zu entwickeln. Peter Mankowski will dabei keine Grosstheorie aufstellen, sondern Zusammenhange aufzeigen. Er bietet im Kern eine rechtsvergleichend-anekdotische Annaherung an einen schwierigen und vielschichtigen Begriff. Dabei will er Anstosse geben und anregen. Rechtskultur steht in gesellschaftlichen, religiosen und ideologischen Traditionen. Rechtskultur ist dynamisch. Sie muss versuchen, mit gesellschaftlichen, wissenschaftlichen und technischen Entwicklungen Schritt zu halten. Rechtskultur speist sich aus der Wahrnehmung der Laien, vermittelt durch Bilder in Medien, ebenso wie aus dem Selbstverstandnis der Juristen. Rechtskultur bezieht sich auf den Einzelnen ebenso wie auf dessen Verhaltnis zu Gemeinschaften. Rechtskultur zeigt sich in internationalen Kontexten. Rechtskultur ist so bunt und vielgestaltig wie das Recht und das Leben selber.

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