violence and restraint in civil war civilian targeting in the shadow of international law

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Violence And Restraint In Civil War

Author : Jessica A. Stanton
ISBN : 9781316720592
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 61. 14 MB
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Media coverage of civil wars often focuses on the most gruesome atrocities and the most extreme conflicts, which might lead one to think that all civil wars involve massive violence against civilians. In truth, many governments and rebel groups exercise restraint in their fighting, largely avoiding violence against civilians in compliance with international law. Governments and rebel groups make strategic calculations about whether to target civilians by evaluating how domestic and international audiences are likely to respond to violence. Restraint is also a deliberate strategic choice: governments and rebel groups often avoid targeting civilians and abide by international legal standards to appeal to domestic and international audiences for diplomatic support. This book presents a wide range of evidence of the strategic use of violence and restraint, using original data on violence against civilians in civil wars from 1989 to 2010 as well as in-depth analyses of conflicts in Azerbaijan, El Salvador, Indonesia, Sudan, Turkey, and Uganda.

The Oxford Handbook Of International Security

Author : Alexandra Gheciu
ISBN : 9780191083587
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 21. 37 MB
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This Oxford Handbook is the definitive volume on the state of international security and the academic field of security studies. It provides a tour of the most innovative and exciting news areas of research as well as major developments in established lines of inquiry. It presents a comprehensive portrait of an exciting field, with a distinctively forward-looking theme, focusing on the question: what does it mean to think about the future of international security? The key assumption underpinning this volume is that all scholarly claims about international security, both normative and positive, have implications for the future. By examining international security to extract implications for the future, the volume provides clarity about the real meaning and practical implications for those involved in this field. Yet, contributions to this volume are not exclusively forecasts or prognostications, and the volume reflects the fact that, within the field of security studies, there are diverse views on how to think about the future. Readers will find in this volume some of the most influential mainstream (positivist) voices in the field of international security as well as some of the best known scholars representing various branches of critical thinking about security. The topics covered in the Handbook range from conventional international security themes such as arms control, alliances and Great Power politics, to " issues such as global health, the roles of non-state actors, cyber-security, and the power of visual representations in international security. The Oxford Handbooks of International Relations is a twelve-volume set of reference books offering authoritative and innovative engagements with the principal sub-fields of International Relations. The series as a whole is under the General Editorship of Christian Reus-Smith of the University of Queensland and Duncan Snidal of the University of Oxford, with each volume edited by a distinguished pair of specialists in their respective fields. The series both surveys the broad terrain of International Relations scholarship and reshapes it, pushing each sub-field in challenging new directions. Following the example of the original Reus-Smit and Snidal The Oxford Handbook of International Relations, each volume is organized around a strong central thematic by a pair of scholars drawn from alternative perspectives, reading its sub-field in an entirely new way, and pushing scholarship in challenging new directions.

The Future Of War

Author : Lawrence Freedman
ISBN : 9780141975610
Genre : History
File Size : 29. 7 MB
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A new approach to ideas about war, from one of the UK's leading strategic thinkers In 1912 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a short story about a war fought from underwater submersibles that included the sinking of passenger ships. It was dismissed by the British admirals of the day, not on the basis of technical feasibility, but because sinking civilian ships was not something that any civilised nation would do. The reality of war often contradicts expectations, less because of some fantastic technical or engineering dimension, but more because of some human, political, or moral threshold that we had never imagined would be crossed. As Lawrence Freedman shows, ideas about the causes of war and strategies for its conduct have rich and varied histories which shape predictions about the future. Freedman shows how looking at how the future of war was conceived about in the past (and why this was more often than not wrong) can put into perspective current thinking about future conflicts. The Future of War - which takes us from preparations for the world wars, through the nuclear age and the civil wars which became the focus for debate after the end of the Cold War, to present preoccupations with hybrid and cyber warfare - is filled with fascinating insights from one of the most brilliant military and strategic historians of his generation.

Author : Ian Kershaw
ISBN : 9789601645636
Genre : History
File Size : 76. 34 MB
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Μια βαθιά διορατική κοινωνική ιστορία της ανόδου του Χίτλερ στην εξουσία και των στάσεων που τήρησε ο γερμανικός λαός κατά τη διάρκεια της περιόδου του Τρίτου Ράιχ.Βασισμένο σε τρεις και πλέον δεκαετίες εξαντλητικής ιστοριογραφικής έρευνας γύρω από τη ναζιστική Γερμανία, το βιβλίο του Kershaw συνθέτει για πρώτη φορά τις σημαντικότερες και πιο σημαίνουσες πτυχές της έρευνας του διαπρεπούς Βρετανού ιστορικού για το Ολοκαύτωμα. Τα κεφάλαια είναι δομημένα σε τρεις ενότητες –ο Χίτλερ και η Τελική Λύση, η κοινή γνώμη και οι Εβραίοι στη ναζιστική Γερμανία, και η Τελική Λύση στην ιστοριογραφία– ενώ ο συγγραφέας προσφέρει επίσης μια εισαγωγή, και έναν επίλογο για τη μοναδικότητα του ναζισμού. Ο ιστορικός Ian Kershaw είναι θεμελιωτής της κοινωνικής ιστορίας του Τρίτου Ράιχ και σε όλη τη διάρκεια της καριέρας του διεξήγε πρωτοποριακές έρευνες για τα κοινωνικά αίτια και τις επιπτώσεις της ναζιστικής πολιτικής. Με το έργο του έχει φέρει στο φως αμέτρητα στοιχεία ως προς τους τρόπους με τους οποίους οι διάφορες στάσεις που υιοθέτησε ο γερμανικός λαός διαμόρφωσαν ή δε διαμόρφωσαν τη ναζιστική πολιτική. Ο παρών τόμος προσφέρει μια σφαιρική, πολυεπίπεδη εικόνα τόσο της ολέθριας δυναμικής της ναζιστικής ηγεσίας όσο και της στάσης και συμπεριφοράς απλών Γερμανών ενόσω ο διωγμός των Εβραίων κλιμακωνόταν για να πάρει τη μορφή ολοσχερούς γενοκτονίας.

The Latin American Times

Author :
ISBN : UCLA:L0066727249
Genre :
File Size : 61. 1 MB
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Congressional Record

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105009893582
Genre : Law
File Size : 42. 14 MB
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The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)

Military Media Review

Author :
ISBN : UVA:X001835009
Genre : Journalism, Military
File Size : 83. 60 MB
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Paratus

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105071746023
Genre : Military art and science
File Size : 39. 27 MB
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