value free science

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Value Free Science

Author : Robert Proctor
ISBN : 067493170X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 60. 13 MB
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A study of the politics of science, emphasizing the importance of the political origins and impact of scientific ideas. It traces the origins of value-neutrality before the 18th century, explores the exclusion of politics and morals with the emergence of the social sciences and reviews critiques.

Value Free Science

Author : Harold Kincaid
ISBN : 0195345584
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 83 MB
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It has long been thought that science is our best hope for realizing objective knowledge, but that, to deliver on this promise, it must be value free. Things are not so simple, however, as recent work in science studies makes clear. The contributors to this volume investigate where and how values are involved in science, and examine the implications of this involvement for ideals of objectivity.

Science Policy And The Value Free Ideal

Author : Heather Douglas
ISBN : 082297357X
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 73. 66 MB
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The role of science in policymaking has gained unprecedented stature in the United States, raising questions about the place of science and scientific expertise in the democratic process. Some scientists have been given considerable epistemic authority in shaping policy on issues of great moral and cultural significance, and the politicizing of these issues has become highly contentious. Since World War II, most philosophers of science have purported the concept that science should be “value-free.” In Science, Policy and the Value-Free Ideal, Heather E. Douglas argues that such an ideal is neither adequate nor desirable for science. She contends that the moral responsibilities of scientists require the consideration of values even at the heart of science. She lobbies for a new ideal in which values serve an essential function throughout scientific inquiry, but where the role values play is constrained at key points, thus protecting the integrity and objectivity of science. In this vein, Douglas outlines a system for the application of values to guide scientists through points of uncertainty fraught with moral valence. Following a philosophical analysis of the historical background of science advising and the value-free ideal, Douglas defines how values should-and should not-function in science. She discusses the distinctive direct and indirect roles for values in reasoning, and outlines seven senses of objectivity, showing how each can be employed to determine the reliability of scientific claims. Douglas then uses these philosophical insights to clarify the distinction between junk science and sound science to be used in policymaking. In conclusion, she calls for greater openness on the values utilized in policymaking, and more public participation in the policymaking process, by suggesting various models for effective use of both the public and experts in key risk assessments.

Is Science Value Free

Author : Hugh Lacey
ISBN : 0415349036
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 94 MB
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In this book, Hugh Lacey explicates and appraises the view that science is value free. Lacey discusses how science and values interact, with a focus on a discussion of development, and science's place in development - particularly in third-world countries.

Max Weber And The Problems Of Value Free Social Science

Author : Jay A. Ciaffa
ISBN : 0838753957
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 37. 71 MB
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This book examines the Werturteilsstreit ("value-judgment dispute"), from its initial stages in the debates between the eminent German social historian Max Weber and his contemporaries, to more recent contributions from scholars such as Karl Popper, Talcott Parsons, and Jurgen Habermas.

Science In A Democratic Society

Author : Susan M. Schneider
ISBN : 9781616144081
Genre : Science
File Size : 76. 54 MB
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Are ghosts real? Are there truly haunted places, only haunted people, or both? And how can we know? Taking neither a credulous nor a dismissive approach, this first-of-its-kind book solves those perplexing mysteries and more-even answering the question of why we care so very much. From the most ancient times, people have experienced apparent contact with spirits of the dead. Some have awakened to see a ghost at their bedside or encountered a spectral figure gliding through a medieval castle. Others have seemingly communicated with spirits, like the Old Testament's Witch of Endor, the spiritualists whose darkroom séances provoked scientific controversy in the last two centuries, or today's "psychic mediums," like John Edward or Sylvia Browne, who seem to reach the "Other Side" even under the glare of television lights. Currently, equipment-laden ghost hunters stalk their quarry in haunted places-from urban houses to country graveyards-recording "anomalies" they insist cannot be explained. Putting aside purely romantic tales, this book examines the actual evidence for such contact-from eyewitness accounts to mediumistic productions (such as diaphanous forms materializing in dim light), spirit photographs, ghost-detection phenomena, and even CSI-type trace evidence. Offering numerous exciting case studies, this book engages in serious investigation rather than breathless mystifying. Pseudoscience, folk legends, and outright hoaxes are challenged and exposed, while the historical, cultural, and scientific aspects of ghost experiences and haunting reports are carefully explored. The author-the world's only professional paranormal investigator-brings his skills as a stage magician, private detective, folklorist, and forensic science writer to bear on a topic that demands serious study.

Science Values And Objectivity

Author : Peter Machamer
ISBN : 9780822970866
Genre : Science
File Size : 77. 30 MB
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Collection of essays that identify the values crucial to science, distinguish some of the criteria that can be used for value identification, and elaborate the conditions for warranting certain values as necessary or central to scientific research.

A Tapestry Of Values

Author : Kevin C. Elliott
ISBN : 9780190260835
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 35. 97 MB
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The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate influences of values in scientific research is a matter of vital importance. Recently, philosophers of science have written a great deal on this topic, but most of their work has been directed toward a scholarly audience. This book makes the contemporary philosophical literature on science and values accessible to a wide readership. It examines case studies from a variety of research areas, including climate science, anthropology, chemical risk assessment, ecology, neurobiology, biomedical research, and agriculture. These cases show that values have necessary roles to play in identifying research topics, choosing research questions, determining the aims of inquiry, responding to uncertainty, and deciding how to communicate information. Kevin Elliott focuses not just on describing roles for values but also on determining when their influences are actually appropriate. He emphasizes several conditions for incorporating values in a legitimate fashion, and highlights multiple strategies for fostering engagement between stakeholders so that value influences can be subjected to careful and critical scrutiny.

Marxism And Social Science

Author : David Marsh
ISBN : 0252068165
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 68. 52 MB
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Has Marxism ceased to be part of our political present and future? Has its theory or doctrine anything to contribute to our understanding of the new millennium? In these original, commissioned essays, the contributors argue that Marxism continues as a living tradition. They show how it still engages with other theoretical positions, how it has evolved in response to both these engagements and contemporary world changes, and they assess its relevance and contribution to modern social science.

The Value Of Science

Author : Henri Poincaré
ISBN : HARVARD:HN3U9H
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 44 MB
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