underground injection science and technology developments in water science

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Underground Injection Science And Technology

Author : C-F. Tsang
ISBN : 0080457908
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 10 MB
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Chapters by a distinguished group of international authors on various aspects of Underground Injection Science and Technology are organized into seven sections addressing specific topics of interest. In the first section the chapters focus on the history of deep underground injection as well regulatory issues, future trends and risk analysis. The next section contains ten chapters dealing with well testing and hydrologic modeling. Section 3, consisting of five chapters, addresses various aspects of the chemical processes affecting the fate of the waste in the subsurface environment. Consideration is given here to reactions between the waste and the geologic medium, and reactions that take place within the waste stream itself. The remaining four sections deal with experience relating to injection of, respectively, liquid wastes, liquid radioactive wastes in Russia, slurried solids, and compressed carbon dioxide. Chapters in Section 4, cover a diverse range of other issues concerning the injection of liquid wastes including two that deal with induced seismicity. In Section 5, Russian scientists have contributed several chapters revealing their knowledge and experience of the deep injection disposal of high-level radioactive liquid processing waste. Section 6 consists of five chapters that cover the technology surrounding the injection disposal of waste slurries. Among the materials considered are drilling wastes, bone meal, and biosolids. Finally, four chapters in Section 7 deal with questions relating to carbon dioxide sequestration in deep sedimentary aquifers. This subject is particularly topical as nations grapple with the problem of controlling the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. * Comprehensive coverage of the state of the art in underground injection science and technology * Emerging subsurface waste disposal technologies * International scope

Prospects For Managed Underground Storage Of Recoverable Water

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309134226
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 20 MB
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Growing demands for water in many parts of the nation are fueling the search for new approaches to sustainable water management, including how best to store water. Society has historically relied on dams and reservoirs, but problems such as high evaporation rates and a lack of suitable land for dam construction are driving interest in the prospect of storing water underground. Managed underground storage should be considered a valuable tool in a water manager's portfolio, although it poses its own unique challenges that need to be addressed through research and regulatory measures.

Review Of The Edwards Aquifer Habitat Conservation Plan

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309451550
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 77 MB
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The Edwards Aquifer in south-central Texas is the primary source of water for one of the fastest growing cities in the United States, San Antonio, and it also supplies irrigation water to thousands of farmers and livestock operators. It is also is the source water for several springs and rivers, including the two largest freshwater springs in Texas that form the San Marcos and Comal Rivers. The unique habitat afforded by these spring-fed rivers has led to the development of species that are found in no other locations on Earth. Due to the potential for variations in spring flow caused by both human and natural causes, these species are continuously at risk and have been recognized as endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act(ESA). In an effort to manage the river systems and the aquifer that controls them, the Edwards Aquifer Authority and stakeholders have developed a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). The HCP seeks to effectively manage the river-aquifer system to ensure the viability of the ESA-listed species in the face of drought, population growth, and other threats to the aquifer. The National Research Council was asked to assist in this process by reviewing the activities around implementing the HCP. Review of the Edwards Aquifer Habitat Conservation Plan: Report 2 reviews the progress in implementing the recommendations from the Committee’s first report, seeking to clarify and provide additional support for implementation efforts where appropriate. The current report also reviews selected Applied Research projects and minimization and mitigation measures to help ensure their effectiveness in benefiting the listed species.

Flowback And Produced Waters

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN : 9780309452625
Genre : Science
File Size : 52. 25 MB
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Produced waterâ€"water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil and gas productionâ€"is the greatest volume byproduct associated with oil and gas production. It is managed by some combination of underground injection, treatment and subsequent use, treatment and discharge, or evaporation, subject to compliance with state and federal regulations. Management of these waters is challenging not only for industry and regulators, but also for landowners and the public because of differences in the quality and quantity of produced water, varying infrastructure needs, costs, and environmental considerations associated with produced water disposal, storage, and transport. Unconventional oil and gas development involves technologies that combine horizontal drilling with the practice of hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing is a controlled, high-pressure injection of fluid and proppant into a well to generate fractures in the rock formation containing the oil or gas. After the hydraulic fracture procedure is completed, the injected fluid is allowed to flow back into the well, leaving the proppant in the newly created fractures. As a result, a portion of the injected water returns to the surface and this water is called “flowback water†which initially may mix with the naturally occurring produced water from the formation. The chemistry and volume of water returning to the surface from unconventional oil and gas operations thus changes during the lifetime of the well due to the amount of fluid used in the initial stage of well development, the amount of water naturally occurring in the geologic formation, the original water and rock chemistry, the type of hydrocarbon being produced, and the way in which production is conducted. The volume and composition of flowback and produced waters vary with geography, time, and site-specific factors. A workshop was conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to highlight the challenges and opportunities associated in managing produced water from unconventional hydrocarbon development, and particularly in the area of potential beneficial uses for these waters. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Management And Effects Of Coalbed Methane Produced Water In The Western United States

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309162939
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 83 MB
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In some coalbeds, naturally occurring water pressure holds methane--the main component of natural gas--fixed to coal surfaces and within the coal. In a coalbed methane (CBM) well, pumping water from the coalbeds lowers this pressure, facilitating the release of methane from the coal for extraction and use as an energy source. Water pumped from coalbeds during this process--CBM 'produced water'--is managed through some combination of treatment, disposal, storage, or use, subject to compliance with federal and state regulations. CBM produced water management can be challenging for regulatory agencies, CBM well operators, water treatment companies, policy makers, landowners, and the public because of differences in the quality and quantity of produced water; available infrastructure; costs to treat, store, and transport produced water; and states' legal consideration of water and produced water. Some states consider produced water as waste, whereas others consider it a beneficial byproduct of methane production. Thus, although current technologies allow CBM produced water to be treated to any desired water quality, the majority of CBM produced water is presently being disposed of at least cost rather than put to beneficial use. This book specifically examines the Powder River, San Juan, Raton, Piceance, and Uinta CBM basins in the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The conclusions and recommendations identify gaps in data and information, potential beneficial uses of CBM produced water and associated costs, and challenges in the existing regulatory framework.

Aquifer Storage And Recovery In The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309073479
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 57. 89 MB
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Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a process by which water is recharged through wells to an aquifer and extracted for beneficial use at some later time from the same wells. ASR is proposed as a major water storage component in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), developed jointly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). The plan would use the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) to store as much as 1.7 billion gallons per day (gpd) (6.3 million m3/day) of excess surface water and shallow groundwater during wet periods for recovery during seasonal or longer-term dry periods, using about 333 wells. ASR represents about one-fifth of the total estimated cost of the CERP. Aquifer Storage and Recovery in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan examines pilot project from the perspective of adaptive assessment, i.e., the extent to which the pilot projects will contribute to process understanding that can improve design and implementation of restoration project components. This report is a critique of the pilot projects and related studies.

Federal Ground Water Science And Technology Programs

Author : Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. Committee on Earth Sciences. Subcommittee on Ground Water
ISBN : UIUC:30112101931639
Genre : Nature
File Size : 64. 46 MB
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Induced Seismicity Potential In Energy Technologies

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309253673
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 86 MB
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In the past several years, some energy technologies that inject or extract fluid from the Earth, such as oil and gas development and geothermal energy development, have been found or suspected to cause seismic events, drawing heightened public attention. Although only a very small fraction of injection and extraction activities among the hundreds of thousands of energy development sites in the United States have induced seismicity at levels noticeable to the public, understanding the potential for inducing felt seismic events and for limiting their occurrence and impacts is desirable for state and federal agencies, industry, and the public at large. To better understand, limit, and respond to induced seismic events, work is needed to build robust prediction models, to assess potential hazards, and to help relevant agencies coordinate to address them. Induced Seismicity Potential in Energy Technologies identifies gaps in knowledge and research needed to advance the understanding of induced seismicity; identify gaps in induced seismic hazard assessment methodologies and the research to close those gaps; and assess options for steps toward best practices with regard to energy development and induced seismicity potential.

Review Of The Desalination And Water Purification Technology Roadmap

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309133432
Genre : Nature
File Size : 28. 52 MB
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The Bureau of Reclamation and Sandia National Laboratories jointly developed the Roadmap to serve as a strategic research pathway for desalination and water purification technologies to meet future water needs. The book recommends that the Roadmap include a sharper focus on the research and technological advancements needed to reach the long-term objectives. The book also suggests that the environmental, economic, and social costs of energy required by increased dependence on desalination be examined. Strategies for implementing the Roadmap initiative are provided.

Class I Underground Injection Control Program Study Of The Risks Associated With Class I Underground Injection Wells

Author :
ISBN : 9781428905511
Genre :
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