translational criminology and counterterrorism global threats and local responses springerbriefs in criminology

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Translational Criminology And Counterterrorism

Author : Leslie W. Kennedy
ISBN : 9781461455561
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27. 31 MB
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This brief focuses on translational criminology practices as they relate to counter-terrorism and homeland security. The work provides a detailed and practical examination of how global threats (such as, terrorism and cybercrime) are managed through local response. It covers emerging strategies in data collection procedures, inter-agency cooperation, and new analytical techniques including risk-terrain modeling. In addition, it presents a common methodology, including steps in risk assessment, risk management, and decision-making, that can be used to frame and analyze global and local threats. The authors examine these issues using examples of how law enforcement responded to specific security threats including the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, the 2003 terrorist attack in Istanbul, Turkey, and the 2010 Stuxnet attack on the Natanz nuclear facility in Iran. This work expands on existing literature covering the impact that globalization has on cross national threats, drawing on disciplines related to criminology, such as international relations and political science.

Procedural Justice And Legitimacy In Policing

Author : Lorraine Mazerolle
ISBN : 9783319045436
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62. 43 MB
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This brief focuses on the “doing” of procedural justice: what the police can do to implement the principles of procedural justice, and how their actions can improve citizen perceptions of police legitimacy. Drawing on research from Australia (Mazerolle et al), the UK (Stanko, Bradford, Jackson etc al), the US (Tyler, Reisig, Weisburd), Israel (Jonathon-Zamir et al), Trinidad & Tobago (Kochel et al) and Ghana (Tankebe), the authors examine the practical ways that the police can approach engagement with citizens across a range of different types of interventions to embrace the principles of procedural justice, including: · problem-oriented policing · patrol · restorative justice · reassurance policing · and community policing. Through these examples, the authors also examine some of the barriers for implementing procedurally just ways of interacting with citizens, and offer practical suggestions for reform. This work will be of interest for researchers in criminology and criminal justice focused on policing as well as policymakers.

Emerging Trends In Drug Use And Distribution

Author : David Khey
ISBN : 9783319035758
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78. 55 MB
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This Brief explores emerging trends in drug use and distribution. This timely Brief examines recent examples of emerging drugs including salvia (from the plant Salvia divinorum), bath salts (and other synthetic stimulants) and so-called research chemicals (primarily substituted phenethylamines, synthetic cousins of ecstasy), which have tended to receive brief levels of high intensity media coverage that may or may not reflect an actual increase in their usage. Over the past decade in particular, “new” substances being used recreationally seem to come out of obscurity and gain rapid popularity, particularly spurred on by discussion and distribution over the internet. While changing trends in the drug market have always presented a challenge for law enforcement and public health officials, online forums, media coverage and other recent trends discussed in this Brief allow them to gain popularity more quickly and change more frequently. These rapid shifts allow less time for researchers to understand the potential health consequences of these substances and for law enforcement to stay abreast of abuses of legal substances. This work includes: 1) review of relevant research and literature, 2) review the Internet sources in which many deem important in influencing the emerging drug market, 3) discussion of national and international trends in use, abuse and distribution of these substances and 4) examination of current drug policy and recommendations for the future. This brief will be useful for criminology and criminal justice, sociology and public health. It will also be useful for those that deal with youth and the problems that may develop during adolescence and early adulthood.

Social Crime Prevention In The Developing World

Author : Heath Grant
ISBN : 9783319130279
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68. 26 MB
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This Brief explores the role of social crime prevention as a crime reduction strategy in the developing world. "Social crime prevention" focuses on the social and economic factors that may contribute to violence and criminal behavior in a community. Particularly in the developing world, an understanding of the socioeconomic and political context holds long-term potential for crime reduction (rather than crime displacement); however, the strategies are complex and the results may be slow. Generally, police and law enforcement are relied upon to present quick results, where social crime prevention strategies can be viewed as being "soft on crime" or too slow. This Brief discusses the tension between the traditional role of police and proactive social crime prevention strategies in an international context, through a variety of case studies. It also provides recommendations for balancing or reshaping this role. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers interested in crime prevention, particularly in the developing world, criminal theory, police studies and related disciplines such as demography, sociology and political science.

Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs As Organized Crime Groups

Author : Thomas Barker
ISBN : 9783319074313
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 34. 25 MB
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​​This brief covers the unique crime group of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs are adult criminal associations composed of “bikers” living a deviant lifestyle that includes individual, group, and club criminal behavior. These groups are sometimes called one percenters, due to the American Motorcycle Association statement that ninety-nine percent of motorcyclists are law abiding citizens. While many may be familiar with the reputation of the Hells' Angels, many may not realize the wide network of other Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs or the extent of their involvement in criminal activities. The brief includes a breakdown of the criminal networks and activities of these groups, which operate similarly to an organized crime group. It also covers the evolution of motorcycle clubs to motorcycle gangs. It examines the recent trend of American-based motorcycle gangs into international organized crime activities. This book will be of interest to researcher studying criminology, particularly organized crime and criminal networks, as well as international and comparative law and public policy.​

Data Driven Process Discovery And Analysis

Author : Karl Aberer
ISBN : 9783642340444
Genre : Computers
File Size : 44. 93 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Novel Insights In The Neurochemistry And Function Of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Author : Inge Brouns
ISBN : 3642227724
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70. 2 MB
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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.

Handbook On Policing In Central And Eastern Europe

Author : Gorazd Mesko
ISBN : 9781461467205
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 32. 13 MB
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Policing in Central and Eastern Europe has changed greatly since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Some Central and Eastern European countries are constituent members of the European Union, while others have been trying to harmonize with the EU and international requirements for a more democratic policing and developments in accordance with Western European and international policing standards, especially in regard to issues of legality and legitimacy. Changes in the police training system (basic and advanced), internationalization of policing due to transnationalization of crime and deviance, new police organizational structures and agencies have impacted new cultures of policing (from exclusively state to plural policing). This timely volume examines developments in the last two decade to learn the nature of these changes within Central and Eastern Europe, and their impact on police culture, as well as on society as a whole. The development of police research has varied widely throughout Central and Eastern Europe: in some countries, it has developed significantly, while in others it is still in its infancy. This work will allow for a transfer of ideas and models of police organization and policing is also need to be studies closely, with an aim to provide consistent and comparable data across all of the countries discussed. For the twenty countries covered, this systematic work provides: short country-based information on police organization and social control, crime and disorder trends in the last 20 years with an on policing, police training and police educational systems, changes in policing in the last 20 years, police and the media, present trends in policing (public and private, multilateral, plural policing), policing urban and rural communities, recent research trends in research on policing – specificities of research on police and policing (researchers and the police, inclusion of police researchers in policy making and police practice) and future developments in policing.

Advances In Cancer Stem Cell Biology

Author : Roberto Scatena
ISBN : 1461408091
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44. 48 MB
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In recent years, cancer stem cells have been recognized as important component in carcinogenesis and they seem to form the basis of many (if not all) tumor types. Cancer stem cells or "cancer cell like stem cells" have been isolated from various cancers of different origin (blood, breast, brain, skin, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). Cancer stem cells - rare cells with indefinite proliferative potential that drive the formation and growth of tumours- seem to show intriguing relationships with physiological stem cells. Specifically, these cancer cells show significant similarities in the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of normal stem cells. Moreover, tumour cells might directly arise from normal stem cells. Further, the cellular biology of cancer stem cells show a lot of similarities with normal stem cells.

Neural Immune Interactions In Brain Function And Alcohol Related Disorders

Author : Changhai Cui
ISBN : 9781461447290
Genre : Medical
File Size : 89. 8 MB
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Recent studies have provided clear evidence on the role of neural-immune interactions in normal brain function and neuropathological conditions. Neuroimmune factors, which play an essential role in neuroinflammatory response, have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal function and plasticity. Thus, neural-immune interactions provide a new frame work for understanding the role of the neuroimmune system in normal brain function, neurodevelopment, and a variety of neurological disorders. These advances have a far reaching impact on many areas of neuroscience, including alcohol research. Studies using human alcoholic brains, gene knockout mice, and gene expression profiling have established a clear link between alcoholism and an altered neuroimmune profile. This book integrates emerging knowledge on neural-immune interactions with key discoveries in alcohol research and provides a comprehensive overview of neural-immune interactions in brain function and behavior associated with alcohol use disorders. While Neural–Immune Interaction in Brain Function and Alcohol Related Disorders focuses on neural-immune interactions in areas directly related to alcohol use disorders, it is not intended to be all inclusive. Several areas, including sleep disorders, pain, and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, are not covered as independent chapters but briefly mentioned in the text. The close relevance of these topics to neural-immune interactions and alcohol use disorders warrants future discussion and more research efforts.

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