toward sustainable agricultural systems in the 21st century

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Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems In The 21st Century

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309157498
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60. 37 MB
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In the last 20 years, there has been a remarkable emergence of innovations and technological advances that are generating promising changes and opportunities for sustainable agriculture, yet at the same time the agricultural sector worldwide faces numerous daunting challenges. Not only is the agricultural sector expected to produce adequate food, fiber, and feed, and contribute to biofuels to meet the needs of a rising global population, it is expected to do so under increasingly scarce natural resources and climate change. Growing awareness of the unintended impacts associated with some agricultural production practices has led to heightened societal expectations for improved environmental, community, labor, and animal welfare standards in agriculture. Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century assesses the scientific evidence for the strengths and weaknesses of different production, marketing, and policy approaches for improving and reducing the costs and unintended consequences of agricultural production. It discusses the principles underlying farming systems and practices that could improve the sustainability. It also explores how those lessons learned could be applied to agriculture in different regional and international settings, with an emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa. By focusing on a systems approach to improving the sustainability of U.S. agriculture, this book can have a profound impact on the development and implementation of sustainable farming systems. Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century serves as a valuable resource for policy makers, farmers, experts in food production and agribusiness, and federal regulatory agencies.

Sustainable Agriculture

Author : Hand, Carol
ISBN : 9781680770964
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 67. 77 MB
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Thrilling new discoveries in science and technology are announced almost daily. Cutting-Edge Science and Technology keeps readers at the forefront of new research. Sustainable Agriculture covers a broad spectrum of issues related to advances in farming technology, such as sustainable soil, sustainable water, sustainable energy, and biotechnology. High-impact photos and explanatory graphics and charts bring scientific concepts to life. Features include essential facts, a glossary, selected bibliography, websites, source notes, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

Precision Agriculture In The 21st Century

Author :
ISBN : NAP:14245
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26. 65 MB
Format : PDF
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Sensors, satellite photography, and multispectral imaging are associated with futuristic space and communications science. Increasingly, however, they are considered part of the future of agriculture. The use of advanced technologies for crop production is known as precision agriculture, and its rapid emergence means the potential for revolutionary change throughout the agricultural sector. Precision Agriculture in the 21st Century provides an overview of the specific technologies and practices under the umbrella of precision agriculture, exploring the full implications of their adoption by farmers and agricultural managers. The volume discusses how precision agriculture could dramatically affect decisionmaking in irrigation, crop selection, pest management, environmental issues, and pricing and market conditions. It also examines the geographical dimensions--farm, regional, national--of precision agriculture and looks at how quickly and how widely the agricultural community can be expected to adopt the new information technologies. Precision Agriculture in the 21st Century highlights both the uncertainties and the exciting possibilities of this emerging approach to farming. This book will be important to anyone concerned about the future of agriculture: policymakers, regulators, scientists, farmers, educators, students, and suppliers to the agricultural industry.

Regenerating Agriculture

Author : International Institute for Environment and Development, London
ISBN : 9780309052467
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 95 MB
Format : PDF
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It is becoming increasingly clear that a more sustainable agriculture can bring economic, environmental, and social benefits to farmers, communities, and nations. Regenerating Agriculture draws together for the first time new empirical evidence from a diverse range of agroecological and community settings to show the impacts of more sustainable practices. Twenty cases involving widespread success from Brazil, Burkina Faso, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Lesotho, Mali, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, and Sri Lanka are presented, and are supported by field- and community-level data from more than 50 projects and programs in 28 countries. Despite this emerging evidence, many farmers still depend on high levels of external inputs. Regenerating Agriculture, identifies the common elements of successful programs and shows how those still using "modernist" approaches to agriculture can successfully turn to sustainable farming. The first chapter outlines the scale of the challenge and includes analysis of sustainable agriculture's characteristics and underlying philosophies and values. Pretty then presents analyses of the processes of agricultural modernization, focusing on both production- and conservation-oriented programs and policies and the common elements of success. Almost all of these successes have been achieved despite existing, biased policy environments that strongly favor "modern" approaches to agricultural development, and at the same time discriminate against sustainability. Regenerating Agriculture examines policy frameworks and institutional processes, then sets out 25 effective policies that are known to work to support the transition to greater sustainability and self-reliance in agriculture.

A Framework For Assessing Effects Of The Food System

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309307833
Genre : Medical
File Size : 35. 96 MB
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How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

Emerging Technologies To Benefit Farmers In Sub Saharan Africa And South Asia

Author : Committee on a Study of Technologies to Benefit Farmers in Africa and South Asia
ISBN : 9780309124942
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 57. 10 MB
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Increased agricultural productivity is a major stepping stone on the path out of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, but farmers there face tremendous challenges improving production. Poor soil, inefficient water use, and a lack of access to plant breeding resources, nutritious animal feed, high quality seed, and fuel and electricity-combined with some of the most extreme environmental conditions on Earth-have made yields in crop and animal production far lower in these regions than world averages. Emerging Technologies to Benefit Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia identifies sixty emerging technologies with the potential to significantly improve agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Eighteen technologies are recommended for immediate development or further exploration. Scientists from all backgrounds have an opportunity to become involved in bringing these and other technologies to fruition. The opportunities suggested in this book offer new approaches that can synergize with each other and with many other activities to transform agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

Toward Sustainability

Author : Committee on International Soil and Water Research and Development
ISBN : 9780309572484
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55. 67 MB
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How can high-growth areas such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America sustain agricultural production for current and future generations? Toward Sustainability explores research priorities to support sustainable agriculture. The book identifies six areas that could offer great rewards: addressing institutional constraints on resource conservation, enhancing soil biological processes, managing soil properties, improving water resource management, matching crops to environments, and effectively incorporating social and cultural dimensions into research. Also highlighted is the importance of developing collaborative, integrated research strategies and flexible mechanisms to periodically evaluate and reassess research priorities.

A New Era For Irrigation

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 0309175755
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 63. 34 MB
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Irrigated agriculture has played a critical role in the economic and social development of the United States--but it is also at the root of increasing controversy. How can irrigation best make the transition into an era of increasing water scarcity? In A New Era for Irrigation, experts draw important conclusions about whether irrigation can continue to be the nation's most significant water user, what role the federal government should play, and what the irrigation industry must do to adapt to the conditions of the future. A New Era for Irrigation provides data, examples, and insightful commentary on issues such as Growing competition for water resources. Developments in technology and science. The role of federal subsidies for crops and water. Uncertainties related to American Indian water rights issues. Concern about environmental problems. And more. The committee identifies broad forces of change and reports on how public and private institutions, scientists and technology experts, and individual irrigators have responded. The report includes detailed case studies from the Great Plains, the Pacific Northwest, California, and Florida, in both the agricultural and turfgrass sectors. The cultural transformation brought about by irrigation may be as profound as the transformation of the landscape. The committee examines major facets of this cultural perspective and explores its place in the future. A New Era for Irrigation explains how irrigation emerged in the nineteenth century, how it met the nation's goals in the twentieth century, and what role it might play in the twenty-first century. It will be important to growers, policymakers, regulators, environmentalists, water and soil scientists, water rights claimants, and interested individuals.

A Sustainability Challenge

Author : Committee on Food Security for All as a Sustainability Challenge
ISBN : 9780309222631
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 80. 71 MB
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The National Research Council's Science and Technology for Sustainability Program hosted two workshops in 2011 addressing the sustainability challenges associated with food security for all. The first workshop, Measuring Food Insecurity and Assessing the Sustainability of Global Food Systems, explored the availability and quality of commonly used indicators for food security and malnutrition; poverty; and natural resources and agricultural productivity. It was organized around the three broad dimensions of sustainable food security: (1) availability, (2) access, and (3) utilization. The workshop reviewed the existing data to encourage action and identify knowledge gaps. The second workshop, Exploring Sustainable Solutions for Increasing Global Food Supplies, focused specifically on assuring the availability of adequate food supplies. How can food production be increased to meet the needs of a population expected to reach over 9 billion by 2050? Workshop objectives included identifying the major challenges and opportunities associated with achieving sustainable food security and identifying needed policy, science, and governance interventions. Workshop participants discussed long term natural resource constraints, specifically water, land and forests, soils, biodiversity and fisheries. They also examined the role of knowledge, technology, modern production practices, and infrastructure in supporting expanded agricultural production and the significant risks to future productivity posed by climate change. This is a report of two workshops.

Seeds Of Sustainability

Author : Pamela A. Matson
ISBN : 9781610911771
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 89. 84 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Seeds of Sustainability is a groundbreaking analysis of agricultural development and transitions toward more sustainable management in one region. An invaluable resource for researchers, policymakers, and students alike, it examines new approaches to make agricultural landscapes healthier for both the environment and people. The Yaqui Valley is the birthplace of the Green Revolution and one of the most intensive agricultural regions of the world, using irrigation, fertilizers, and other technologies to produce some of the highest yields of wheat anywhere. It also faces resource limitations, threats to human health, and rapidly changing economic conditions. In short, the Yaqui Valley represents the challenge of modern agriculture: how to maintain livelihoods and increase food production while protecting the environment. Renowned scientist Pamela Matson and colleagues from leading institutions in the U.S. and Mexico spent fifteen years in the Yaqui Valley in Sonora, Mexico addressing this challenge. Seeds of Sustainability represents the culmination of their research, providing unparalleled information about the causes and consequences of current agricultural methods. Even more importantly, it shows how knowledge can translate into better practices, not just in the Yaqui Valley, but throughout the world.

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