three great tsunamis lisbon 1755 sumatra andaman 2004 and japan 2011 springerbriefs in earth sciences

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Three Great Tsunamis Lisbon 1755 Sumatra Andaman 2004 And Japan 2011

Author : Harsh K. Gupta
ISBN : 9789400765764
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 24 MB
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Tsunamis are primarily caused by earthquakes. Under favourable geological conditions, when a large earthquake occurs below the sea bed and the resultant rupture causes a vertical displacement of the ocean bed, the entire column of water above it is displaced, causing a tsunami. In the ocean, tsunamis do not reach great heights but can travel at velocities of up to 1000 km/hour. As a tsunami reaches shallow sea depths, there is a decrease in its velocity and an increase in its height. Tsunamis are known to have reached heights of several tens of meters and inundate several kilometres inland from the shore. Tsunamis can also be caused by displacement of substantial amounts of water by landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calving and rarely by meteorite impacts and nuclear tests in the ocean. In this SpringerBrief, the causes of tsunamis, their intensity and magnitude scales, global distribution and a list of major tsunamis are provided. The three great tsunamis of 1755, 2004 and 2011are presented in detail. The 1755 tsunami caused by the Lisbon earthquake, now estimated to range from Mw 8.5 to 9.0, was the most damaging tsunami ever in the Atlantic ocean. It claimed an estimated 100,000 human lives and caused wide-spread damage. The 2004 Sumatra Andaman Mw 9.1 earthquake and the resultant tsunami were the deadliest ever to hit the globe, claiming over 230,000 human lives and causing wide-spread financial losses in several south and south-east Asian countries. The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the resultant tsunami were a surprise to the seismologists in Japan and around the globe. The height of the tsunami far exceeded the estimated heights. It claimed about 20,000 human lives. The tsunami also caused nuclear accidents. This earthquake has given rise to a global debate on how to estimate the maximum size of an earthquake in a given region and the safety of nuclear power plants in coastal regions. This Brief also includes a description of key components of tsunami warning centres, progress in deploying tsunami watch and warning facilities globally, tsunami advisories and their communication, and the way forward.

Earthquake Disasters In Latin America

Author : Heriberta Castaños
ISBN : 9789400728103
Genre : Nature
File Size : 45. 47 MB
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This book is an attempt to demonstrate the analytical power of the holistic approach for understanding disasters. Six major earthquakes in Latin America are used as an example: the general idea is to place disasters in a broad social and regional context. Understanding disasters is a way of understanding the social system. The idea is to show that every major disaster is unique and different. Statistical methods may be useful for purposes of risk estimation but modern disasters are "systemic" and complex. In the chapter on the 2010 Chile earthquake we discuss the tsunami and why the system of tsunami alert did not work. The introductory chapter contains some basics of seismology (plate tectonics) and earthquake engineering. The 1985 Mexico earthquake describes why geology is important. Why was Mexico City founded in a lake? Technology must be adapted to the environment, not "imported" from possibly more advanced but different societies. The 1970 Peru earthquake is an example of disaster in a unique environment. Caracas 1967 takes us on a survey of different engineering solutions. And the 1960 Chile earthquake leads us on a retrospective survey--what has changed in Chile between the two major Chile earthquakes? A discussion on Charles Darwin’s observations of the 1835 Chile earthquake provides a fitting summary.

Impact Craters In South America

Author : Rogelio Daniel Acevedo
ISBN : 9783319130934
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 89 MB
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A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological "in situ" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay and Venezuela only a few were observed. Only Ecuador is waiting for new discoveries. So far, the largest well stated impact site is still the Araguainha structure in Brazil with its 40 kilometers in diameter. However, two possible impact structures are larger than Araguainha: Malvinas, (with 250 kilometers in diameter) and Vichada in Colombia, (50 kilometers). This study also reports the existence of some Tertiary-Quaternary glassy impactite layers: the "escorias" and "tierras cocidas" of the pampas in Argentina.

Mantle Plumes And Their Effects

Author : Mainak Choudhuri
ISBN : 9783319442396
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 71 MB
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This book presents a brief synopsis of the current academic understanding of the plume hypothesis, its surface manifestations and its shortcomings. It also describes methods for estimating the uplift history of a region due to plume activity. It discusses different models for the elastic properties of the lithosphere and their estimation as a background for plume emplacement, and introduces the plume hypothesis, describing the major plume types and their effect on the lithosphere. Two chapters are dedicated to the dynamic and permanent topography produced by an impinging plume head below the lithosphere and its estimation. It also presents the historical background of the plume hypothesis, its criticisms and alternatives.

Hacking

Author : Harsh Bothra
ISBN : 9789386173058
Genre : Computers
File Size : 52. 77 MB
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Be a Hacker with Ethics

Tsunami

Author : Edward Bryant
ISBN : 9783319061337
Genre : Nature
File Size : 77. 31 MB
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It is a comprehensive and well illustrated textbook on all aspects of tsunami. I don't think there is any other book on the topic published. As one bookseller said after the Indian Ocean tsunami event, "I would have just filled my front window with copies and they would have walked out the store." This statement was just as relevant after the Japanese tsunami of 2011 and will be as relevant when the next large tsunami event happens, sooner rather than later. The book can be used by a student or layperson to gain encyclopedic knowledge about tsunami.

Composition Geochemistry And Conversion Of Oil Shales

Author : C.E. Snape
ISBN : 9789401103176
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 10 MB
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Oil shales are broadly dermed as petroleum source rocks containing sufficiently high contents of organic matter (above ca 10-15 wt. %) to make utilisation a possibility. Like coal, the world's reserves of oil shales are vast being many times larger than those proven for crude oil. Indeed, some of the largest deposits occur in the USA and Europe where Estonia and Turkey have large reserves. The first recorded interest in oil shale retorting was an English patent in 1694 (Eele, Hancock and Porter, No. 330) which refers to distilling noyle from some kind of stone". The oil shale retorting industry dates back to the middle of the last century, notably Scotland, Estonia, France and Sweden in Europe. Indeed, my own Department at the University of Strathclyde has a historical link with James "Paraffin" Young, the founder of the Scottish oil shale industry who endowed a chair in Applied Chemistry. The growth of the oil industry saw the demise of the oil shale industry in most countries with the notable exception of Estonia, where kukersite has continued to be used for power generation and retorting. However, oil shale utilisation has attracted renewed attention since the early 1970s as a source of transport fuels and chemical feedstocks due to the the long term uncertainties over crude oil supplies.

Deposition Diagenesis And Weathering Of Organic Matter Rich Sediments

Author : Ralf Littke
ISBN : 9783540476221
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 3 MB
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The book on deposition, diagenesis, and weathering of organic matter-rich sediments is a summary of seven years of research work of the author at the Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry in J}lich. It contains a comparision of various depositional environments (lakes, deltas, seas)with respect to organic matter characteristics, a special chapter on the deposition of the Posidonia shale, a summary of organic matter maturation and related petroleum generation, and a chapter on the use of maturationparameters as calibration tools for numerical modelling of temperature histories of sedimentary basins. Also, microscopic effects of petroleum generation and oil to gas cracking are treated. The final chapters deal withcoals as source rocks for oil and gas and with the effects of weatheringon sediments which are rich in organic matter.

Introduction To Medical Geology

Author : C. B. Dissanayake
ISBN : 9783642004858
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 92 MB
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Over two billion people live in tropical lands. Most of them live in intimate contact with the immediate geological environment, obtaining their food and water directly from it. The unique geochemistry of these tropical environments have a marked influence on their health, giving rise to diseases that affect millions of people. The origin of these diseases is geologic as exemplified by dental and skeletal fluorosis, iodine deficiency disorders, trace element imbalances to name a few. This book, one of the first of its kind, serves as an excellent introduction to the emerging discipline of Medical Geology.

Organic Geochemistry

Author : Geoffrey Eglinton
ISBN : 9783642877346
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 46 MB
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For many years, the subject matter encompassed by the title of this book was largely limited to those who were interested in the two most economically important organic materials found buried in the Earth, namely, coal and petroleum. The point of view of any discussions which might occur, either in scientific meetings or in books that have been written, was, therefore, dominated largely by these interests. A great change has occurred in the last decade. This change had as its prime mover our growing knowledge of the molecular architecture of biological systems which, in turn, gave rise to a more legitimate asking of the question: "How did life come to be on the surface of the Earth?" A second motivation arose when the possibilities for the exploration of planets other than the Earth-the moon, Mars, and other parts of the solar system-became a reality. Thus the question of the possible existence of life elsewhere than on Earth conceivably could be answered.

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