the urban fabric of crime and fear

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The Urban Fabric Of Crime And Fear

Author : Vania Ceccato
ISBN : 9789400742109
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 27. 34 MB
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How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

Moving Safely

Author : Vania Ceccato
ISBN : 9780739177617
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 69. 40 MB
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The aim of Moving Safely is to provide both theoretical and empirical perspectives on safety conditions at subway stations. This book adopts an approach that is place-centered, focusing on the importance of physical and social environments of these transit settings on crime and perceived safety using Stockholm transportation system as a case study . It offers suggestions on how to plan safety at subway stations with a variety of passenger preferences, needs and resources.

Fear Of Crime

Author : Dan A. Lewis
ISBN : 9781351520058
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 65. 88 MB
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Most studies of fear of crime assume that is rimarily induced by direct or indirect contact with a criminal event. Consequently programs designed to deal with this problem focus on either increased police protection or a number of crime prevention programs. In this study, Dan A. Lewis and Greta W. Salem raise questions both about the validity of these assumptions and the effectiveness of the programs. A five-year investigation has led the authors to challenge those theories that focus only on the psychological responses to victimizations and fail to take into account the social and political environments within which such fears are shaped and nurtured.Explicitly laying out a 'social control' perspective which informs their research and analysis, the authors examine the fear of crime in ten neighorhoods in Chicago, San Francisco, and Philadelphia which represent the range of communities typically found in urban areas. On the basis of their analysis the authors contend that fear of crime is not related to exposure or knowledge about criminal events alone but also stems from residents' concerns about broad changes taking place in their neighborhoods. Many people, they argue, are afraid not only because crime occurs but also because they believe that they have lost control over the environment in which they live.Lewis and Salem conclude that the eradication of fear of crime requires strategies that move beyond the traditional crime prevention programs to consider ways to restore the control that community residents feel they have lost and the possibilities for a more equitable distribution of security in urban areas.

Fixing Broken Windows

Author : George L. Kelling
ISBN : 9780684837383
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 38. 22 MB
Format : PDF
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Cites successful examples of community-based policing

Classics In Environmental Criminology

Author : Martin A. Andresen
ISBN : 9781439817803
Genre : Law
File Size : 79. 32 MB
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A careful analysis of environmental factors is key to understanding the causes of crime, to solving crimes, and eventually helping to predict and prevent them. Classics in Environmental Criminology is a comprehensive collection of seminal pieces from legendary contributors who focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the occurrence of a crime. Defines the field Divided into three parts, the book begins by highlighting the development of environmental criminology as a discipline through its origins in spatial criminology. It examines social disorganization theory, which explains criminal activity with reference to the characteristics of the community that delinquents live in. It then discusses the ecology of crime with reference to macroenvironments and microenvironments. The next section introduces concepts such as routine activity theory, the geometric theory of crime, the rational choice theory of offending, and crime pattern theory. Offers perspectives on prevention The last part focuses on the concept of crime prevention, examines the idea of altering the environment in order to prevent crime, and discusses situational crime factors and efforts to reduce the opportunities for crimes to be committed. It considers the impact of routine activities on crime prevention initiatives and advocates a flexible approach to crime prevention based on the dynamic nature of our environment. The book concludes with a chapter outlining how environmental criminology has evolved in recent years and provides a future outlook on where it may be headed. Invaluable as a textbook and as a professional reference, this volume is a comprehensive survey of a critical field in contemporary criminological theory. Offering insight assembled by top academic figures within the criminology community, this work is destined to provoke further inquiry and research.

Citizens Of Fear

Author : Susana Rotker
ISBN : 0813530350
Genre : History
File Size : 33. 75 MB
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Citizens in Latin American cities live in constant fear, amidst some of the most dangerous conditions on earth. In that vast region, 140 thousand people die violently each year, and one out of three citizens have been directly or indirectly victimized by violence. In Venezuela, adults are on average targets of crime seventeen crimes in their lifetimes, four of which are violent. In Mexico, 97 percent of all reported crimes go unpunished. Crime, in effect, is an undeclared war. Citizens of Fear, in part, assembles survey results of social scientists who document the pervasiveness of violence. But the numbers tell only part of the story. Other contributors present moving testimonials by the victimized and by journalists covering the scene. A third group of essayists explores the implications of the resulting fear for both thought and behavior. As Susana Rotker writes, "The city has been transformed into a space of vulnerability and danger...What I am interested in narrating here is...the generalized sensation of insecurity that taints the Latin American capitals, the sensation that has changed the ways people relate to urban space, to other human beings, to the state, and to the very concept of citizenship. "

City Of Walls

Author : Teresa Pires do Rio Caldeira
ISBN : 0520221435
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 20. 34 MB
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"This is an extraordinary treatment of a difficult problem. . . . Much more than a conventional comparative study, City of Walls is a genuinely transcultural, transnational work--the first of its kind that I have read."--George E. Marcus, author of Ethnography Through Thick & Thin "Caldeira's work is wonderfully ambitious-theoretically bold, ethnographically rich, historically specific. Anyone who cares about the condition and future of cities, of democracy, of human rights should read this book."--Thomas Bender, Director of the Project on Cities and Urban Knowledges "City of Walls is a brilliant analysis of the dynamics of urban fear. The sophistication of Caldeira's arguments should stimulate new discussion of cities and urban life. Its significance goes far beyond the borders of Brazil."--Margaret Crawford, Professor of Urban Planning and Design Theory, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University "Caldeira's insight illuminates the geography of the city as well as the boundaries--or the lack of boundaries--of violence."--Paul Chevigny, author of Edge of the Knife: Police Violence in the Americas "An extraordinary account of violence in the city. . . . Caldeira brings to this task a rare depth of knowledge and understanding."--Saskia Sassen, author of Globalization and Its Discontents "An outstanding contribution to understanding authoritarian continuity under political reform. Caldeira has written a brilliant and bleak analysis on the many challenges and obstacles which government and civil society face in new democracies."--Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, Director of the Center for the Study of Violence, University of São Paulo and Member of the United Nations Sub-Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights

Putting Fear Of Crime On The Map

Author : Bruce J. Doran
ISBN : 1441956476
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47. 71 MB
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Since first emerging as an issue of concern in the late 1960s, fear of crime has become one of the most researched topics in contemporary criminology and receives considerable attention in a range of other disciplines including social ecology, social psychology and geography. Researchers looking the subject have consistently uncovered alarming characteristics, primarily relating to the behavioural responses that people adopt in relation to their fear of crime. This book reports on research conducted over the past eight years, in which efforts have been made to pioneer the combination of techniques from behavioural geography with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to map the fear of crime. The first part of the book outlines the history of research into fear of crime, with an emphasis on the many approaches that have been used to investigate the problem and the need for a spatially-explicit approach. The second part provides a technical break down of the GIS-based techniques used to map fear of crime and summarises key findings from two separate study sites. The authors describe collective avoidance behaviour in relation to disorder decline models such as the Broken Windows Thesis, the potential to integrate fear mapping with police-community partnerships and emerging avenues for further research. Issues discussed include fear of crime in relation to housing prices and disorder, the use of fear mapping as a means with which to monitor the impact of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and fear mapping in transit environments.

City Limits

Author : Keith Hayward
ISBN : 9781135311582
Genre : Law
File Size : 72. 54 MB
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City Limits contributes to a growing body of work under the umbrella of 'cultural criminology', which attempts to bring an appreciation of cultural change to an understanding of crime in late modernity (Hayward and Young 2004). Hayward presents an ambitious theoretical analysis that attempts to inspire a 'cultural approach' to understanding the 'crime-city nexus' and, in particular, to re-address 'strain' and the concept of 'relative deprivation' in the context of a culture of consumption. The book incorporates an impressive array of literature from beyond the boundaries of traditional criminology - including urban studies, social theory and, most strikingly, from art and architectural criticism - illustrating a multidisciplinary approach. This provides for a challenging and enlightening read, with a particularly important emphasis on the impact of consumer culture on the lived urban experience and spatial dynamics of the city and, in turn, for an understanding of transgression and criminality. Runner-up for the British Society of Criminology Book Prize (2004).

Welcome To Fear City

Author : Nathan Holmes
ISBN : 1438471211
Genre : History
File Size : 27. 33 MB
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Analyzes how location-shot crime films of the 1970s reflected and influenced understandings of urban crisis.

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