the turkish deep state state consolidation civil military relations and democracy routledge studies in middle eastern politics

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The Turkish Deep State

Author : Mehtap Sooyler
ISBN : 9781317668794
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77. 51 MB
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The deep state ranks among the most critical issues in Turkish politics. This book traces its origins and offers an explanation of the emergence and trajectory of the deep state; the meaning and function of informal and authoritarian institutions in the formal security sector of a democratic regime; the involvement of the state in organized crime; armed conflict; corruption; and massive human rights violations. This book applies an innovative methodological approach to concept formation and offers a mid-range theory of deep state that sheds light on the reciprocal relationship between the state and political regimes and elaborates on the conditions for the consolidation of democracy. It traces the path-dependent emergence and trajectory of the deep state from the Ottoman Empire to the current Turkish Republic and its impact on state-society relations. It reads state formation, consolidation, and breakdown from the perspective of this most resilient phenomenon of Turkish politics. The analysis also situates recent developments regarding AKP governments, including the EU accession process, civil-military relations, coup trials, the Kurdish question, and the Gülen Movement in their context within the deep state. Moreover, this case-study offers an analytical framework for cross-regional comparative analysis of the deep states. Addressing the lacuna in academic scholarship on the deep state phenomenon in Turkey, this book is essential reading for students and scholars with an interest in democratization, politics and Middle East Studies.

Routledge Handbook Of Mediterranean Politics

Author : Richard Gillespie
ISBN : 9781317446330
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 36. 61 MB
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The Mediterranean space, defined by a major sea, a large number of littoral countries and to some extent their hinterlands, is at the same time an interface between Europe, Africa and Asia. This brings complex challenges in terms of achieving peace and stability. Recently it has received intense international attention through the internal destructiveness and spill-over from conflicts, primarily those waged in Libya, Syria and, more remotely, Iraq. This Handbook provides an overview of the political processes that shape the Mediterranean region in the contemporary context. It explores the issues of crucial importance to Mediterranean dynamics through a series of analytical sections that guide the reader towards a comprehensive understanding of the main regional interactions and trends. The Handbook explores: the complex historical formation of the contemporary Mediterranean geopolitical perspectives issues around peace and conflict the political economy of the region the role of non-state actors and social movements societal and cultural trends. The wide range of contributions from many of the leading academic experts on the region offers not only insights into the debates and processes that structure each theme, but also key pointers for a more general understanding of how distinct political, economic, social and cultural dynamics interact across the region. It will therefore be a key resource for policy-makers and students and scholars of Mediterranean politics and international relations.

Ethnic Cleansing During The Cold War

Author : Tomasz Kamusella
ISBN : 9781351062688
Genre : History
File Size : 79. 26 MB
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In mid-1989, the Bulgarian communist regime seeking to prop up its legitimacy played the ethnonational card by expelling 360,000 Turks and Muslims across the Iron Curtain to neighboring Turkey. It was the single largest ethnic cleansing during the Cold War in Europe after the wrapping up of the postwar expulsions (‘population transfers’) of ethnic Germans from Central Europe in the latter half of the 1940s. Furthermore, this expulsion of Turks and Muslims from Bulgaria was the sole unilateral act of ethnic cleansing that breached the Iron Curtain. The 1989 ethnic cleansing was followed by an unprecedented return of almost half of the expellees, after the collapse of the Bulgarian communist regime. The return, which partially reversed the effects of this ethnic cleansing, was the first-ever of its kind in history. Despite the unprecedented character of this 1989 expulsion and the subsequent return, not a single research article, let alone a monograph, has been devoted to these momentous developments yet. However, the tragic events shape today’s Bulgaria, while the persisting attempts to suppress the remembrance of the 1989 expulsion continue sharply dividing the country’s inhabitants. Without remembering about this ethnic cleansing it is impossible to explain the fall of the communist system in Bulgaria and the origins of ethnic cleansing during the Yugoslav wars. Faltering Yugoslavia’s future ethnic cleansers took a good note that neither Moscow nor Washington intervened in neighboring Bulgaria to stop the 1989 expulsion, which in light of international law was then still the legal instrument of ‘population transfer.’ The as yet unhealed wound of the 1989 ethnic cleansing negatively affects the Bulgaria’s relations with Turkey and the European Union. It seems that the only way out of this debilitating conundrum is establishing a truth and reconciliation commission that at long last would ensure transitional justice for all Bulgarians irrespective of language, religion or ethnicity.

Ethnic Minorities In Democratizing Muslim Countries

Author : Maurizio Geri
ISBN : 9783319755748
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 86. 28 MB
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This book explores the ways in which democratizing Muslim countries treat their ethnic minorities’ requests of inclusiveness and autonomy. The author examines the results of two important cases—the securitization of Kurds in Turkey and the “autonomization” (a new concept coined by the study) of Acehnese in Indonesia—through multiple hypotheses: the elites’ power interest, the international factors, the institutions and history of the state, and the ontological security of the country. By examining states with ethnic diversity and very little religious diversity, the research controls for the effect of religious conflict on minority inclusion, and so allows expanded generalizations and comparisons. In non-Muslim majority countries, and in so called “mature democracies,” the problem of the inclusion of old or new ethnic minorities is also crucial for the sustainability of the “never-ending” democratization processes.

Al Askarah Wa Al Amn F Al Sharq Al Awsa

Author : Amīn Huwaydī
ISBN : UOM:39015029439042
Genre : History
File Size : 22. 57 MB
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ISBN : 9957390511
Genre :
File Size : 41. 32 MB
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Author :
ISBN : 9953825610
Genre : Arab Spring, 2010-
File Size : 68. 17 MB
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Author : Ray Takeyh
ISBN : 9789960549835
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 29 MB
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تعود أهمية هذا الكتاب إلى عدة عوامل منها أن مؤلفه هو (راي تقية) الباحث والكاتب السياسي المطلع، والعضو في مجلس العلاقات الخارجية الأمريكية، المتخصص في إيران والحركات الإسلامية، والسياسة الشرق أوسطية. كما أن موضوع الكتاب له أهمية خاصة، فهو يتناول، بحياد ودقة وموضوعية، واحدة من أكثر البؤر السياسية توترًا والتهابًا في العالم، وهي إيران، وما يحيط بها في منطقتنا من تعقيدات وتداخلات وتعارضات في علاقاتها مع كل القوى الفاعلة في المنطقة وفي العالم. يبتدئ المؤلف كتابه بمقدمة عنوانها: الفهم الخاطئ لإيران، وينهيه بخاتمة عنوانها: الفهم الصحيح لإيران، وفيما بينهما ثمانية فصول يحلل فيها الوضع الإيراني الداخلي في ارتباطه بتاريخها الاجتماعي والثقافي والعقائدي والثوري، وفي علاقة كل ذلك بقضايا المنطقة بكل تعقيداتها، محاولاً استجلاء ملامح وأسباب فهم أمريكا الخاطئ لإيران الذي جعلها اليوم مشكلة مستعصية على الحل. وكأن الكتاب محاولة للإجابة عن سؤال واحد بشقين: لماذا الفهم الخاطئ؟ كيف يكون الفهم الصحيح، وبالتالي المنهج الصحيح لمعالجة واحدة من أكبر مشكلات العصر؟ العبيكان للنشر

Author : كورو، أحمد ت
ISBN : 995353392X
Genre : Religion and state
File Size : 36. 34 MB
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Author :
ISBN : 9953011397
Genre : Civil society
File Size : 27. 48 MB
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