the political and social dynamics of poverty poor relief and health care in early modern portugal the history of medicine in context

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The Political And Social Dynamics Of Poverty Poor Relief And Health Care In Early Modern Portugal

Author : Laurinda Abreu
ISBN : 9781317020899
Genre : History
File Size : 62. 97 MB
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By the end of the fifteenth century most European counties had witnessed a profound reformation of their poor relief and health care policies. As this book demonstrates, Portugal was among them and actively participated in such reforms. Providing the first English language monograph on this this topic, Laurinda Abreu examines the Portuguese experience and places it within the broader European context. She shows that, in line with much that was happening throughout the rest of Europe, Portugal had not only set up a systematic reform of the hospitals but had also developed new formal arrangements for charitable and welfare provision that responded to the changing socioeconomic framework, the nature of poverty and the concerns of political powers. The defining element of the Portuguese experience was the dominant role played by a new lay confraternity, the confraternity of the Misericórdia, created under the auspices of King D. Manuel I in 1498. By the time of the king's death in 1521 there were more than 70 Misericórdias in Portugal and its empire, and by 1640, more than 300. All of them were run according to a unified set of rules and principles with identical social objectives. Based upon a wealth of primary source documentations, this book reveals how the sixteenth-century Portuguese crown succeeded in implementing a national poor relief and health care structure, with the support of the Papacy and local elites, and funded principally though pious donations. This process strengthened the authority of the royal government at a time which coincided with the emergence of the early modern state. In so doing, the book establishes poor relief and public health alongside military, diplomatic and administrative authorities, as the pillars of centralization of royal power.

Pathology In Practice

Author : Silvia De Renzi
ISBN : 9781317083313
Genre : History
File Size : 68. 94 MB
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Post-mortems may have become a staple of our TV viewing, but the long history of this practice is still little known. This book provides a fresh account of the dissections that took place across early modern Europe on those who had died of a disease or in unclear circumstances. Drawing on different approaches and on sources as varied as notes taken at the dissection table, legal records and learned publications, the chapters explore how autopsies informed the understanding of pathology of all those involved. With a broad geography, including Rome, Amsterdam and Geneva, the book recaptures the lost worlds of physicians, surgeons, patients, families and civic authorities as they used corpses to understand diseases and make sense of suffering. The evidence from post-mortems was not straightforward, but between 1500 and 1750 medical practitioners rose to the challenge, proposing various solutions to the difficulties they encountered and creating a remarkable body of knowledge. The book shows the scope and diversity of this tradition and how laypeople contributed their knowledge and expectations to the wide-ranging exchanges stimulated by the opening of bodies.

It All Depends On The Dose

Author : Ole Peter Grell
ISBN : 9781315521077
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 83 MB
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This is the first volume to take a broad historical sweep of the close relation between medicines and poisons in the Western tradition, and their interconnectedness. They are like two ends of a spectrum, for the same natural material can be medicine or poison, depending on the dose, and poisons can be transformed into medicines, while medicines can turn out to be poisons. The book looks at important moments in the history of the relationship between poisons and medicines in European history, from Roman times, with the Greek physician Galen, through the Renaissance and the maverick physician Paracelsus, to the present, when poisons are actively being turned into beneficial medicines.

Health And Welfare In St Petersburg 1900 1941

Author : Christopher Williams
ISBN : 9780429016615
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 40 MB
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In the first book to chart late Imperial and Soviet health policy and its impact on the health of the collective in Russia’s former capital and second "regime" city, Christopher Williams argues that in pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg radical sections of the medical profession and the Bolsheviks highlighted the local and Tsarist government’s failure to protect the health of poor peasants and the working class due to conflicts over the priority and direction of health policy, budget constraints and political division amongst doctors. They sought to forge alliances to change the law on social insurance and to prioritise the health of the collective. Situating pre- and post-revolutionary health policies in the context of revolutions, civil war, market transition and Stalin’s rise to power, Williams shows how attempts were made to protect the Body Russian/Soviet and to create a healthier lifestyle and environment for key members of the new Soviet state. This failed due to shortages of money, ideology and Soviet medical and cultural norms. It resulted in ad hoc interventions into people’s lives and the promotion of medical professionalization, and then the imposition of restrictions resulting from changes in the Party line. Williams shows that when the health of the collective was threatened and created medical disorder, it led to state coercion.

Public Health And Social Reforms In Portugal 1780 1805

Author : Laurinda Abreu
ISBN : 9781443874700
Genre : History
File Size : 45. 73 MB
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This monograph provides an innovative analysis of a unique period for social and public health policy in Portuguese history. With a firm basis in archival research, the book examines a lesser-known facet of one of the most fascinating and controversial figures in the late Ancien Regime in Portugal: Diogo Inácio de Pina Manique, the Intendant-General of Police from 1780 to 1805. By combining the resources of the Intendancy with those of the Casa Pia, an institution for welfare provision and social control that he set up just a month after being appointed, Pina Manique attempted to introduce a variety of projects designed to create a prosperous, healthy, well-educated, informed, clean and hard-working country less inclined to vice and immorality, in which the people would be obedient and the upper classes more magnanimous. One of his greatest achievements was perhaps to understand the link between ill health and poverty and therefore to regard public health as a key area of governance.

The End Of The Irish Poor Law

Author : Donnacha Seán Lucey
ISBN : 9781784996734
Genre : History
File Size : 72. 80 MB
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This book examines Irish Poor Law reform during the years of the Irish revolution and Irish Free State. This work is a significant addition to the growing historiography of the twentieth century which moves beyond political history, and demonstrates that concepts of respectability, social class and gender are central dynamics in Irish society. This book provides the first major study of local welfare practices and exploration of policies, attitudes and the poor. This monograph examines local public assistance regimes, institutional and child welfare, and hospital care. It charts the transformation of workhouses into a network of local authority welfare and healthcare institutions including county homes, county hospitals, and mother and baby homes. The book's exploration of welfare and healthcare during revolutionary and independent Ireland provides fresh and original insights into this critical juncture in Irish history. The book will appeal to Irish historians and those with interests in welfare, the Poor Law and the social history of medicine and institutions.

The World Health Report 2008

Author : World Health Organization
ISBN : 9789241563734
Genre : Medical
File Size : 32. 10 MB
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Provides information on medical care and health care policy from around the world.

World Report On Ageing And Health

Author : World Health Organization
ISBN : 9789241565042
Genre : Family & Relationships
File Size : 68. 75 MB
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The WHO World report on ageing and health is not for the book shelf it is a living breathing testament to all older people who have fought for their voice to be heard at all levels of government across disciplines and sectors. - Mr Bjarne Hastrup President International Federation on Ageing and CEO DaneAge This report outlines a framework for action to foster Healthy Ageing built around the new concept of functional ability. This will require a transformation of health systems away from disease based curative models and towards the provision of older-person-centred and integrated care. It will require the development sometimes from nothing of comprehensive systems of long term care. It will require a coordinated response from many other sectors and multiple levels of government. And it will need to draw on better ways of measuring and monitoring the health and functioning of older populations. These actions are likely to be a sound investment in society's future. A future that gives older people the freedom to live lives that previous generations might never have imagined. The World report on ageing and health responds to these challenges by recommending equally profound changes in the way health policies for ageing populations are formulated and services are provided. As the foundation for its recommendations the report looks at what the latest evidence has to say about the ageing process noting that many common perceptions and assumptions about older people are based on outdated stereotypes. The report's recommendations are anchored in the evidence comprehensive and forward-looking yet eminently practical. Throughout examples of experiences from different countries are used to illustrate how specific problems can be addressed through innovation solutions. Topics explored range from strategies to deliver comprehensive and person-centred services to older populations to policies that enable older people to live in comfort and safety to ways to correct the problems and injustices inherent in current systems for long-term care.

World Poverty

Author : Townsend, Peter
ISBN : 9781861343956
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 44. 67 MB
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Includes statistics.

Connecting Worlds

Author : Amèlia Polònia
ISBN : 1527509125
Genre :
File Size : 23. 4 MB
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This book establishes a dialogue between colonial studies and the history of science, contributing to a renewed analytical framework grounded on a trans-national, trans-cultural and trans-imperial perspective. It proposes a historiographical revision based on self-organization and cooperation theories, as well as the role of traditionally marginalized agents, including women, in processes that contributed to the building of a First Global Age, from 1400 to 1800. The intermediaries between European and local bearers of knowledge played a central role, together with cultural translation processes involving local practices of knowledge production and the global circulation of persons, commodities, information and knowledge. Colonized worlds in the First Global Age were central to the making of Europe, while Europeans were, undoubtedly, responsible for the emergence of new balances of power and new cultural grounds. Circulation and locality are core concepts of the theoretical frame of this book. Discussing the connection between the local and the global, in terms of production and circulation of knowledge, within the framework of colonialism, the book establishes a dialogue between experts on the history of science and specialists on global and colonial studies.

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