the political and social dynamics of poverty poor relief and health care in early modern portugal the history of medicine in context

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The Political And Social Dynamics Of Poverty Poor Relief And Health Care In Early Modern Portugal

Author : Laurinda Abreu
ISBN : 9781317020882
Genre : History
File Size : 67. 53 MB
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By the end of the fifteenth century most European counties had witnessed a profound reformation of their poor relief and health care policies. As this book demonstrates, Portugal was among them and actively participated in such reforms. Providing the first English language monograph on this this topic, Laurinda Abreu examines the Portuguese experience and places it within the broader European context. She shows that, in line with much that was happening throughout the rest of Europe, Portugal had not only set up a systematic reform of the hospitals but had also developed new formal arrangements for charitable and welfare provision that responded to the changing socioeconomic framework, the nature of poverty and the concerns of political powers. The defining element of the Portuguese experience was the dominant role played by a new lay confraternity, the confraternity of the Misericórdia, created under the auspices of King D. Manuel I in 1498. By the time of the king's death in 1521 there were more than 70 Misericórdias in Portugal and its empire, and by 1640, more than 300. All of them were run according to a unified set of rules and principles with identical social objectives. Based upon a wealth of primary source documentations, this book reveals how the sixteenth-century Portuguese crown succeeded in implementing a national poor relief and health care structure, with the support of the Papacy and local elites, and funded principally though pious donations. This process strengthened the authority of the royal government at a time which coincided with the emergence of the early modern state. In so doing, the book establishes poor relief and public health alongside military, diplomatic and administrative authorities, as the pillars of centralization of royal power.

Pathology In Practice

Author : Silvia De Renzi
ISBN : 9781317083313
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 53 MB
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Post-mortems may have become a staple of our TV viewing, but the long history of this practice is still little known. This book provides a fresh account of the dissections that took place across early modern Europe on those who had died of a disease or in unclear circumstances. Drawing on different approaches and on sources as varied as notes taken at the dissection table, legal records and learned publications, the chapters explore how autopsies informed the understanding of pathology of all those involved. With a broad geography, including Rome, Amsterdam and Geneva, the book recaptures the lost worlds of physicians, surgeons, patients, families and civic authorities as they used corpses to understand diseases and make sense of suffering. The evidence from post-mortems was not straightforward, but between 1500 and 1750 medical practitioners rose to the challenge, proposing various solutions to the difficulties they encountered and creating a remarkable body of knowledge. The book shows the scope and diversity of this tradition and how laypeople contributed their knowledge and expectations to the wide-ranging exchanges stimulated by the opening of bodies.

From Clinic To Concentration Camp

Author : Paul Weindling
ISBN : 9781317132400
Genre : History
File Size : 83. 11 MB
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Representing a new wave of research and analysis on Nazi human experiments and coerced research, the chapters in this volume deliberately break from a top-down history limited to concentration camp experiments under the control of Himmler and the SS. Instead the collection positions extreme experiments (where research subjects were taken to the point of death) within a far wider spectrum of abusive coerced research. The book considers the experiments not in isolation but as integrated within wider aspects of medical provision as it became caught up in the Nazi war economy, revealing that researchers were opportunistic and retained considerable autonomy. The sacrifice of so many prisoners, patients and otherwise healthy people rounded up as detainees raises important issues about the identities of the research subjects: who were they, how did they feel, how many research subjects were there and how many survived? This underworld of the victims of the elite science of German medical institutes and clinics has until now remained a marginal historical concern. Jews were a target group, but so were gypsies/Sinti and Roma, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and partisans. By exploring when and in what numbers scientists selected one group rather than another, the book provides an important record of the research subjects having agency, reconstructing responses and experiential narratives, and recording how these experiments – iconic of extreme racial torture – represent one of the worst excesses of Nazism.

Health And Welfare In St Petersburg 1900 1941

Author : Christopher Williams
ISBN : 9780429016615
Genre : History
File Size : 88. 57 MB
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In the first book to chart late Imperial and Soviet health policy and its impact on the health of the collective in Russia’s former capital and second "regime" city, Christopher Williams argues that in pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg radical sections of the medical profession and the Bolsheviks highlighted the local and Tsarist government’s failure to protect the health of poor peasants and the working class due to conflicts over the priority and direction of health policy, budget constraints and political division amongst doctors. They sought to forge alliances to change the law on social insurance and to prioritise the health of the collective. Situating pre- and post-revolutionary health policies in the context of revolutions, civil war, market transition and Stalin’s rise to power, Williams shows how attempts were made to protect the Body Russian/Soviet and to create a healthier lifestyle and environment for key members of the new Soviet state. This failed due to shortages of money, ideology and Soviet medical and cultural norms. It resulted in ad hoc interventions into people’s lives and the promotion of medical professionalization, and then the imposition of restrictions resulting from changes in the Party line. Williams shows that when the health of the collective was threatened and created medical disorder, it led to state coercion.

Public Health And Social Reforms In Portugal 1780 1805

Author : Laurinda Abreu
ISBN : 9781443874700
Genre : History
File Size : 30. 99 MB
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This monograph provides an innovative analysis of a unique period for social and public health policy in Portuguese history. With a firm basis in archival research, the book examines a lesser-known facet of one of the most fascinating and controversial figures in the late Ancien Regime in Portugal: Diogo Inácio de Pina Manique, the Intendant-General of Police from 1780 to 1805. By combining the resources of the Intendancy with those of the Casa Pia, an institution for welfare provision and social control that he set up just a month after being appointed, Pina Manique attempted to introduce a variety of projects designed to create a prosperous, healthy, well-educated, informed, clean and hard-working country less inclined to vice and immorality, in which the people would be obedient and the upper classes more magnanimous. One of his greatest achievements was perhaps to understand the link between ill health and poverty and therefore to regard public health as a key area of governance.

Migration Health And Ethnicity In The Modern World

Author : Catherine Cox
ISBN : 1137303220
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 74 MB
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This volume examines the relationship between migration, health and illness in a global context from c.1820 to the present day. Bringing together leading scholars from the history of medicine and social policy, it assesses the changing health status of migrant groups in a period encompassing Imperial expansion, decolonisation and new waves of economic and political migration in the twentieth century. Focusing chiefly on the Anglophone world, the volume takes a wide range of case studies to explore the themes of epidemic disease and its containment, chronic illness and mental breakdown in Britain, the US, Israel and the Caribbean. The concerns of the volume echo and enable reflection upon the health challenges experienced by migrants and countries of destinations in recent years.

Making And Unmaking Public Health In Africa

Author : Ruth J. Prince
ISBN : 9780821444665
Genre : History
File Size : 37. 43 MB
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Africa has emerged as a prime arena of global health interventions that focus on particular diseases and health emergencies. These are framed increasingly in terms of international concerns about security, human rights, and humanitarian crisis. This presents a stark contrast to the 1960s and ‘70s, when many newly independent African governments pursued the vision of public health “for all,” of comprehensive health care services directed by the state with support from foreign donors. These initiatives often failed, undermined by international politics, structural adjustment, and neoliberal policies, and by African states themselves. Yet their traces remain in contemporary expectations of and yearnings for a more robust public health. This volume explores how medical professionals and patients, government officials, and ordinary citizens approach questions of public health as they navigate contemporary landscapes of NGOs and transnational projects, faltering state services, and expanding privatization. Its contributors analyze the relations between the public and the private providers of public health, from the state to new global biopolitical formations of political institutions, markets, human populations, and health. Tensions and ambiguities animate these complex relationships, suggesting that the question of what public health actually is in Africa cannot be taken for granted. Offering historical and ethnographic analyses, the volume develops an anthropology of public health in Africa. Contributors:Hannah Brown, P. Wenzel Geissler, Murray Last, Rebecca Marsland, Lotte Meinert, Benson A. Mulemi, Ruth J. Prince, Noémi Tousignant, and Susan Reynolds Whyte

The End Of The Irish Poor Law

Author : Donnacha Seán Lucey
ISBN : 9780719087578
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 32. 71 MB
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This book examines Irish poor law reform during the years of the Irish revolution and Irish Free State. This work is a significant addition to the growing historiography of twentieth-century Ireland which moves beyond political history. It demonstrates that concepts of respectability, deservingness, social class, and gender where central dynamics in Irish society. This book provides the first major study of local welfare practices, policies, and attitudes towards poverty and the poor in this era. This book's exploration of the poor law during revolutionary Ireland provides fresh and original insights into this critical juncture in Irish history. It charts the transformation of the former workhouse system into a network of local authority welfare and healthcare institutions including county homes, county and hospital hospitals, and mother and baby homes. It makes an important contribution to not just historiographical understandings, but also contemporary debates on institutions in Ireland's past. New insights into medical history and hospital care are also provided. It's based on under-utilised local and central government records and reveals not just the attitudes of the poor relief officials, but also sheds much light on the poor and how people engaged with the system. The book is also comparative in context and places the Irish experience of poor relief reform against the backdrop of wider transnational trends. This work has multiple audiences and will appeal to those interested in Irish social, culture, economic and political history. The book will also appeal to historians of welfare, the poor law, and the social history of medicine.

Plague Quarantines And Geopolitics In The Ottoman Empire

Author : Birsen Bulmus
ISBN : 9780748655472
Genre : Medical
File Size : 53. 21 MB
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A sweeping examination of Ottoman plague treatise writers from the Black Death until 1923

Health In The Marketplace

Author : Takahiro Ueyama
ISBN : 0930664299
Genre : Literary Collections
File Size : 40. 90 MB
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Much like consumers today, late-19th-century Londoners lived in a mass culture of commodified abundance and conspicuous consumption. Their consumer fetishism was fully represented by their avid pursuit of health-related services and medicinal goods--the market was rife with brand-name patent medicines such as Dr. Scott's Little Liver Pills and Dr. William's Pink Pills for Pale People, and city-dwellers frequently bought patented medico-electrical appliances such as Pulvermacher's Electric Chains or Harness' Electropathic Belt. In this highly original book Takahiro Ueyama recounts a vivid narrative--populated by long-forgotten entrepreneurs and charlatans--that accounts for the way in which socioeconomic and professional interests came into conflict among medically trained doctors, electrical engineers, manufacturers of patent medicines, and quack physicians. Thoroughly grounded in research into health commodification in the late 19th century, this book demonstrates that Victorians had issues very much like ours today. Like us, they wrestled with ambiguities about drug effectiveness and regulation. Like us, they worried about the uncertain boundaries between science and quackery. They, too, were baffled by the competing claims of orthodox and alternative medicine. They, too, went in for massage therapy and erotic quasi-medical services. Such was reality in late-19th-century Britain, and it was the root of what we observe in our highly capitalized modern world, where profit-driven commercialism ubiquitously intrudes into the medical domain. Takahiro Ueyama is professor of the history unit in the Faculty of Economics, Sophia University, Tokyo. "Well before the efflorescence of late-Victorian commodity culture, medical capitalism had permeated--and in many ways compromised--the seemingly well-established purity of medical professionalism."--Timothy Lenoir, Duke University "This study illuminates major concerns and issues in contemporary medicine and society."--Seth Koven, Rutgers University

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