the ontogeny of information developmental systems and evolution science and cultural theory

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The Ontogeny Of Information

Author : Susan Oyama
ISBN : 9780822380665
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 42 MB
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The Ontogeny of Information is a critical intervention into the ongoing and perpetually troubling nature-nurture debates surrounding human development. Originally published in 1985, this was a foundational text in what is now the substantial field of developmental systems theory. In this revised edition Susan Oyama argues compellingly that nature and nurture are not alternative influences on human development but, rather, developmental products and the developmental processes that produce them. Information, says Oyama, is thought to reside in molecules, cells, tissues, and the environment. When something wondrous occurs in the world, we tend to question whether the information guiding the transformation was pre-encoded in the organism or installed through experience or instruction. Oyama looks beyond this either-or question to focus on the history of such developments. She shows that what developmental “information” does depends on what is already in place and what alternatives are available. She terms this process “constructive interactionism,” whereby each combination of genes and environmental influences simultaneously interacts to produce a unique result. Ontogeny, then, is the result of dynamic and complex interactions in multileveled developmental systems. The Ontogeny of Information challenges specialists in the fields of developmental biology, philosophy of biology, psychology, and sociology, and even nonspecialists, to reexamine the existing nature-nurture dichotomy as it relates to the history and formation of organisms.

Evolution S Eye

Author : Susan Oyama
ISBN : 0822324725
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 66. 40 MB
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DIVCollection of essays by Susan Oyama looking at the implications of developmental systems approach for evolutionary theory, specifically for nature-nurture oppositions, ideas of essential human nature, and the limits of human agency and possibility./div

Cycles Of Contingency

Author : Susan Oyama
ISBN : 0262650630
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 42. 65 MB
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The nature/nurture debate is not dead. Dichotomous views of development still underlie many fundamental debates in the biological and social sciences. Developmental systems theory (DST) offers a new conceptual framework with which to resolve such debates. DST views ontogeny as contingent cycles of interaction among a varied set of developmental resources, no one of which controls the process. These factors include DNA, cellular and organismic structure, and social and ecological interactions. DST has excited interest from a wide range of researchers, from molecular biologists to anthropologists, because of its ability to integrate evolutionary theory and other disciplines without falling into traditional oppositions.The book provides historical background to DST, recent theoretical findings on the mechanisms of heredity, applications of the DST framework to behavioral development, implications of DST for the philosophy of biology, and critical reactions to DST.

Information Theory And Evolution

Author : John Avery
ISBN : 9789814401241
Genre : Computers
File Size : 34. 30 MB
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Information Theory and Evolution discusses the phenomenon of life, including its origin and evolution (and also human cultural evolution), against the background of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and information theory. Among the central themes is the seeming contradiction between the second law of thermodynamics and the high degree of order and complexity produced by living systems. This paradox has its resolution in the information content of the Gibbs free energy that enters the biosphere from outside sources, as the author will show. The role of information in human cultural evolution is another focus of the book. The first edition of Information Theory and Evolution made a strong impact on thought in the field by bringing together results from many disciplines. The new second edition offers updated results based on reports of important new research in several areas, including exciting new studies of the human mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA. Another extensive discussion featured in the second edition is contained in a new appendix devoted to the relationship of entropy and Gibbs free energy to economics. This appendix includes a review of the ideas of Alfred Lotka, Frederick Soddy, Nicholas Georgiescu-Roegen and Herman E. Daly, and discusses the relevance of these ideas to the current economic crisis. The new edition discusses current research on the origin of life, the distinction between thermodynamic information and cybernetic information, new DNA research and human prehistory, developments in current information technology, and the relationship between entropy and economics.

The Dependent Gene

Author : David S. Moore
ISBN : 0805072802
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 64 MB
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Provides an analysis of the nature vs. nuture debate, arguing for an end to the "either/or" nature of the discussions in favor of a recognition that environmental and genetic factors interact throughout life to form human traits.

Philosophy Of Complex Systems

Author :
ISBN : 0080931227
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 34. 47 MB
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Approaches To Positive Youth Development

Author : Rainer K Silbereisen
ISBN : 9781446223031
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 16 MB
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Scientific research and science-guided practice based on the promotion of an individual's strengths constitutes a radical shift in a new and growing area of study within the field of human development. Its trademark term is `positive youth development'. This approach to human development is based on the idea that, in addition to preventing problems, science and practice should promote the development of competencies, skills, and motivation in order to enhance individuals' developmental pathways. Approaches to Positive Youth Development, is based on this concept and brings together authors from across Europe and America who are leaders in their respective fields. The main focus of the book, beyond a clarification of the paradigmatic foundations, concerns the major contexts of adolescents and young adults, namely, neighbourhoods and leisure locales, school and family, and the major themes of healthy psychosocial development, namely, competences and knowledge, prosocial behaviour, transcending problems of delinquency, civic engagement, identity, agency, and spirituality.

The Structure Of Evolutionary Theory

Author : Stephen Jay Gould
ISBN : 9780674417922
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 39 MB
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The world’s most revered and eloquent interpreter of evolutionary ideas offers here a work of explanatory force unprecedented in our time—a landmark publication, both for its historical sweep and for its scientific vision. With characteristic attention to detail, Stephen Jay Gould first describes the content and discusses the history and origins of the three core commitments of classical Darwinism: that natural selection works on organisms, not genes or species; that it is almost exclusively the mechanism of adaptive evolutionary change; and that these changes are incremental, not drastic. Next, he examines the three critiques that currently challenge this classic Darwinian edifice: that selection operates on multiple levels, from the gene to the group; that evolution proceeds by a variety of mechanisms, not just natural selection; and that causes operating at broader scales, including catastrophes, have figured prominently in the course of evolution. Then, in a stunning tour de force that will likely stimulate discussion and debate for decades, Gould proposes his own system for integrating these classical commitments and contemporary critiques into a new structure of evolutionary thought. In 2001 the Library of Congress named Stephen Jay Gould one of America’s eighty-three Living Legends—people who embody the “quintessentially American ideal of individual creativity, conviction, dedication, and exuberance.” Each of these qualities finds full expression in this peerless work, the likes of which the scientific world has not seen—and may not see again—for well over a century.

Concepts And Theories Of Human Development

Author : Richard M. Lerner
ISBN : 9781136674075
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 72. 19 MB
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Concepts and Theories of Human Development is the most comprehensive and in-depth overview of the foundational theoretical contributions to understanding human development and the influence of these contributions for contemporary research and application in developmental science. Since its initial publication in 1976, it has been an essential resource for students and professionals alike, and has become the go-to book for graduate students studying for their comprehensive exam on human development. In this new Fourth Edition, Richard M. Lerner concentrates his focus on advanced students and scholars already familiar with the basic elements of major psychological theories. The book discusses the assumptions involved in such topics as stage theories, the nature-nurture issue, the issue of continuity-discontinuity, and the important role of philosophical ideas about theories – in particular, metatheories – in understanding the links between theory and research. It particularly focuses on relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory, exploring its roots in the 1930s, following its development into the present day, and contrasting it with the fundamentally flawed genetic reductionist models that continue to be circulated by scientists, the media, and the general public. It discusses implications of theory for research methods and for applications aimed at the promotion of health, positive development, and social justice among diverse people across the life span.

The Evolution Of Childhood

Author : Melvin Konner
ISBN : 0674045661
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 53 MB
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With an eye to the entire range of human evolutionary history, a study of human development examines cross-cultural and universal characteristics of growth from infancy to adolescence.

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