the major transitions in evolution revisited

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The Major Transitions In Evolution Revisited

Author : Brett Calcott
ISBN : 0262294532
Genre : Science
File Size : 55. 57 MB
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In 1995, John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry published their influential book The Major Transitions in Evolution. The "transitions" that Maynard Smith and Szathmáry chose to describe all constituted major changes in the kinds of organisms that existed but, most important, these events also transformed the evolutionary process itself. The evolution of new levels of biological organization, such as chromosomes, cells, multicelled organisms, and complex social groups radically changed the kinds of individuals natural selection could act upon. Many of these events also produced revolutionary changes in the process of inheritance, by expanding the range and fidelity of transmission, establishing new inheritance channels, and developing more open-ended sources of variation. Maynard Smith and Szathmáry had planned a major revision of their work, but the death of Maynard Smith in 2004 prevented this. In this volume, prominent scholars (including Szathmáry himself) reconsider and extend the earlier book's themes in light of recent developments in evolutionary biology. The contributors discuss different frameworks for understanding macroevolution, prokaryote evolution (the study of which has been aided by developments in molecular biology), and the complex evolution of multicellularity.

Cloning Branching Patterns The Major Transitions Of Evolution Other Writings

Author : Christopher Portosa Stevens
ISBN : 9780359003907
Genre : Education
File Size : 88. 20 MB
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Sample: "What does language do? Or, what does culture do? Language and culture are non-genetic mechanisms for increasing the number of qualities across individuals, and language and culture also increase the capacity for intraspecific assortative mating across individuals in the human species (by increasing the number of dissimilarities and categories of similarities across individuals in the human species). It is interesting to consider functional analogies amongst animals and plants: Birdsong and feather colors in bird species, and the colors and shapes of angiosperm flowering plant species play similar functions in these species, i.e., they increase the number and differentiation of characteristics across individual organisms, thus increasing the capacity for assortative mating across individual organisms in bird species (intraspecific assortative mating), and increasing the capacity for assortative mating across angiosperm species and insect, bee, and bird species (interspecific assortative mating).""

Biological Individuality

Author : Scott Lidgard
ISBN : 9780226446455
Genre : Science
File Size : 69. 52 MB
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Introduction: working together on individuality / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- The work of biological individuality: concepts and contexts / Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart -- Cells, colonies, and clones: individuality in the volvocine algae / Matthew D. Herron -- Individuality and the control of life cycles / Beckett Sterner -- Discovering the ties that bind: cell-cell communication and the development of cell sociology / Andrew S. Reynolds -- Alternation of generations and individuality, 1851 / Lynn K. Nyhart and Scott Lidgard -- Spencer's evolutionary entanglement: from liminal individuals to implicit collectivities / Snait Gissis -- Biological individuality and enkapsis: from Martin Heidenhain's synthesiology to the völkisch national community / Olivier Rieppel -- Parasitology, zoology, and society in France, ca. 1880-1920 / Michael A. Osborne -- Metabolism, autonomy, and individuality / Hannah Landecker -- Bodily parts in the structure-function dialectic / Ingo Brigandt -- Commentaries: historical, biological, and philosophical perspectives -- Distrust that particular intuition: resilient essentialisms and empirical challenges in the history of biological individuality / James Elwick -- Biological individuality: a relational reading / Scott F. Gilbert -- Philosophical dimensions of individuality / Alan C. Love and Ingo Brigandt

Synergistic Selection How Cooperation Has Shaped Evolution And The Rise Of Humankind

Author : Corning Peter A
ISBN : 9789813230958
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 81 MB
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"Nothing about the evolution of biological complexity makes sense except in the light of synergy." Peter Corning's new book is being hailed as a major contribution to what is perhaps the greatest shift in our understanding of evolution since The Origin of Species. It's a tour de force that takes us on a synergy-guided tour of the history of life. As Corning puts it, "life on Earth has been a synergistic phenomenon from the get go." Corning also shows how synergy has been a key to human evolution, including the rise of complex modern societies. "Cooperation may have been the vehicle, but synergy was the driver." As we now face a tipping point and another major transition in evolution, Corning offers us a synergy-based road-map to the future. "One of the great take-home lessons from the epic of evolution is that cooperation produces synergy, and synergy is the way forward. The arc of evolution bends toward synergy." Contents: Explaining Complexity A New View of Evolution How Cooperation Trumps Competition Evolution as a "Combination of Labor" A Tale of Two Theories The Major Transitions in Evolution The Self-Made Man I: Australopithecine Entrepreneurs The Self-Made Man II: From erectus to Homo sapiens The Rise of Complex Societies The Next Major Transition Readership: Undergraduate, graduate students and the general public interested in general science, general life sciences, evolutionary biology, human biology/anthropology/primatology, and public policy. Keywords: Synergy;Cooperation;Complexity;Evolution;Natural Selection;Human Evolution;Major Transitions in Evolution;Cultural Evolution;Multi-Level SelectionReview: "This magnificent book reveals the critical role of synergy in evolution and in all of biology, including especially in humankind. Synergy is fundamental in so many areas of science and knowledge. And in his final chapter, on how to change our current dysfunctional course as a species and avoid the destruction of our planet, Peter Corning offers us a unique and hopeful new vision." Anthony Trewavas, FRS Emeritus Professor, Institute of Molecular Plant Science, University of Edinburgh and author of Plant Behaviour and Intelligence "Peter Corning's approach is wise and he is astonishingly well read. The scope of his excellent book is broad and ambitious, running from the origins of life to modern economics in human societies. Many of his examples are described in clear and fascinating detail ... He writes extremely well and I read every word with great pleasure and interest ... I am full of admiration and strongly recommend it." Sir Patrick Bateson, FRS Emeritus Professor of Biology, Cambridge University president of the Zoological Society of London and the author of (among others) Behaviour, Development and Evolution "This is an important book. It offers a solution to a problem that has been central to evolutionary biology for half a century, with implications that reach down to the foundations of evolutionary theory. Corning argues that the huge and disproportionate advantages that arise when labor is combined could account for the rise of ever higher levels of organization in the history of life. The book is also well written, a pleasure to read." Daniel W McShea Professor of Biology, Duke University and co-author of Biology's First Law "Peter Corning's book is a marvelous addition to the growing literature about the emerging alternative to gene-centric neo-Darwinism in evolutionary biology. We would not exist were it not for the cooperative behaviour of livin

On The Origin Of Autonomy

Author : Bernd Rosslenbroich
ISBN : 9783319041414
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 32. 50 MB
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This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.

Gaining Control

Author : Robert Aunger
ISBN : 9780191002854
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 54. 75 MB
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'Gaining control' tells the story of how human behavioral capacities evolved from those of other animal species. Exploring what is known about the psychological capacities of other groups of animals, the authors reconstruct a fascinating history of our own mental evolution. In the book, the authors see mental evolution as a series of steps in which new mechanisms for controlling behavior develop in different species - starting with early representatives of this kingdom, and leading to a species - us - that can engage in a large number of different types of behavioral control. Key to their argument is the idea that each of these steps — from reflexes to instincts, drives, emotions, and cognitive planning - can be seen as a novel type of psychological adaptation in which information is 'inherited' by an animal from its own behavior through new forms of learning - a form of major evolutionary transition. Thus the mechanisms that result from these steps in increasingly complex behavioral control can also be seen as the fundamental building blocks of psychology. Such a perspective on behaviour has a number of implications for practitioners in fields ranging from experimental psychology to public health. Short, provocative, and insightful, this book will be of great interest and use to evolutionary psychologists and biologists, anthropologists and the scientific community as a whole.

Cooperation And Its Evolution

Author : Kim Sterelny
ISBN : 9780262018531
Genre : Science
File Size : 25. 97 MB
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Essays from a range of disciplinary perspectives show the central role that cooperation plays in structuring our world. This collection reports on the latest research on an increasingly pivotal issue for evolutionary biology: cooperation. The chapters are written from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and utilize research tools that range from empirical survey to conceptual modeling, reflecting the rich diversity of work in the field. They explore a wide taxonomic range, concentrating on bacteria, social insects, and, especially, humans. Part I ("Agents and Environments") investigates the connections of social cooperation in social organizations to the conditions that make cooperation profitable and stable, focusing on the interactions of agent, population, and environment. Part II ("Agents and Mechanisms") focuses on how proximate mechanisms emerge and operate in the evolutionary process and how they shape evolutionary trajectories. Throughout the book, certain themes emerge that demonstrate the ubiquity of questions regarding cooperation in evolutionary biology: the generation and division of the profits of cooperation; transitions in individuality; levels of selection, from gene to organism; and the "human cooperation explosion" that makes our own social behavior particularly puzzling from an evolutionary perspective.

Reading The Story In Dna

Author : Lindell Bromham
ISBN : STANFORD:36105131743226
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 23 MB
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The world is full of DNA. The salad in your sandwich, the pollen in the air, even the dirt on your shoes contains DNA from which a vast amount of information can be gained, including the identification of individuals and species, the structure and distribution of populations, the origins oflineages and the pace and mechanisms of evolutionary change. Reading the story in DNA is a beginner's guide to molecular evolution, and is the perfect companion on the journey to a proper understanding of molecular data. The central theme of the book is that in order to get ecological or evolutionary information out of molecular data, you must understand the way that the molecular data evolves and the influence that the assumptions you make have on the answers you get. The book blends beautifully clear explanations with cutting-edge examples from the research literature, drawing on the fields of biodiversity, conservation biology, epidemiology, phylogeography, evolutionary development and ancient DNA to explore topics such as molecular evolutionary theory,phylogenetics, molecular clocks, detecting selection and recombination, and identifying individuals from molecular data.Technical detail is set apart from the main text, allowing the student to approach the material in different ways: read only the text and skip the finer details, use the text to understand the technical details or vice versa, or identify key case studies and read the concepts and methods particularto that case. The use of "bioinformatic" analyses has revolutionized biology, and there are now few areas of evolution and ecology that remain untouched by molecular data. Today's biology students and researchers need to be familiar with the application of molecular data to answering evolutionary questions. Butthe most pressing question is usually: "Where do I start?!" This book is the answer.Online Resource Centre:The Online Resource Centre features:- Figures from the book in electronic format, ready to download- Discussion questions and tutorial exercisesFor students:- Annotated weblinks- Topical updates: links to relevant journal articles and websites that describe advancements in the field since the book's publication

Major Transitions In Vertebrate Evolution

Author : Jason S. Anderson
ISBN : UOM:39015066901607
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 29 MB
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New discoveries of ancient vertebrates, filling in gaps in the fossil record, are quickly eroding the traditionally recognized differences between the principal groups of vertebrates—for example, between dinosaurs and birds—and radically changing our understanding of the evolutionary history of the major group of animals to which our species belongs. This book describes this changing scientific landscape and contributes to the revolution in our knowledge of the developmental mechanisms that underlie evolutionary transformation.

Evolutionary And Molecular Biology

Author : Robert J. Russell
ISBN : 0268027536
Genre : Religion
File Size : 73. 60 MB
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This collection of twenty-two research papers explores the creative interaction between evolutionary and molecular biology, philosophy, and theology. It is the result of the third of five international research conferences co-sponsored by the Vatican Observatory, Rome, and the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, Berkeley. The overarching goal of these conferences is to support the engagement of constructive theology with the natural sciences and to investigate the philosophical and theological elements in ongoing theoretical research in the natural sciences.

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