the life and behavior of living organisms a general theory

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The Life And Behavior Of Living Organisms

Author : Elliott Jaques
ISBN : 0275975010
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 68. 68 MB
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Jaques provides a general theory that gives a dynamic scientific foundation for the understanding of all living behavior. Based on more than 50 years of consultancy research throughout the world with individuals and all types of social institutions, Jaques focuses on the intentionality, judgment, and decisions that characterize behavior.

Butterfly Economics

Author : Paul Ormerod
ISBN : 9780307819413
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 39. 17 MB
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Why did VHS, an inferior video recording technology, succeed in the marketplace, driving the superior Betamax out of business? Why do big-budget, acclaimed movies sometimes flop at the box office, while low-budget, idiosyncratic films become huge hits? The answers to these questions, says Paul Omerod, remind us that economics is a science based on the workings of human society, as unpredictable an entity as there is. "Conventional economics is mistaken," claimes Omerod, "when it views the economy as a machine, whose behavior, no matter how complicated, is ultimately predictable and controllable." In this cogently and elegantly argued analysis of why human beings persist in engaging in behavior that defies time-honored economic theory, Omerod also explains why governments and industries throughout the world must completely reconfigure their traditional methods of economic forecasting if they are to succeed and prosper in an increasingly global marketplace.

A General Theory Of Bureaucracy

Author : Elliott Jaques
ISBN : OCLC:755136040
Genre :
File Size : 52. 8 MB
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On Beyond Living

Author : Richard Doyle
ISBN : 0804727651
Genre : Science
File Size : 42. 11 MB
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What do biologists study when they study "life" today? Drawing on tools from rhetoric and poststructuralist theory, the author argues that the ascent of molecular biology, with its emphasis on molecules such as DNA rather than organisms, was enabled by crucial rhetorical "softwares." Metaphors such as the genetic "code" made possible a transformation of the very concept of life, a transformation that often casts organisms as information systems. With careful readings of key texts from the history of molecular biology—such as those of Erwin Schrödinger, George Gamow, Jacques Monod, and François Jacob—the author maps out the complex relations between the practices of rhetoric and the technoscientific triumphs they accompanied, triumphs that bolstered a "postvital" biology that increasingly elides and questions the boundary between organisms and machines. There have been many popular books, and a few academic ones, on the Human Genome Initiatives. On Beyond Living is a genealogy of these initiatives, a map of how we have come to equate human beings with "information." Melding contemporary theory with scientific discourse, it is certain to provoke discussion (and controversy) in the fields of cultural studies, theory, and science with its penetrating inquiries into the relations between rhetoric and technoscience.

Human Capability

Author : Elliott Jaques
ISBN : IND:30000044502791
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 51. 28 MB
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A major breakthrough in understanding human capability, intelligence, & development theory is reported with the results of Cason/Jaques' conclusive 3-year validation study capping Jaques' 38-year developmental program. Evidence shows that individuals mature within predictable patterns & that maturation continues throughout life. First uncovered by Dr. Jaques in 1956, this theory has been continually tested & confirmed since that time. Study validates the authors' dynamic conception about the maturation of capability beyond adolescence & includes discussion relating it to Piaget's concepts, which end at age 15, & to IQ studies which posit that intelligence fully matures by age 18. Cason/Jaques' research & field work demonstrate with high reliability & validity that when heavily engrossed in work, individuals process information in four & only four ways which recur in a series of higher orders of information complexity. Further, this hierarchy of mental processing methods corresponds with levels of individual capability & gives an objective method of DIRECT OBSERVATION of capability. The ability to plot & predict the growth of human potential capability is experienced by some as controversial. Social consequences of this work are substantial & are addressed by the authors. Order from: Cason Hall, 5201 Leesburg Pike, Suite 1103, Falls Church, VA 22041; 800-448-7357.

Your Behavior

Author : Richard H. Pfau
ISBN : 1557789274
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 83. 26 MB
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This book will help you to: (1) analyze your own behavior based on a comprehensive understanding of why you do the things you do, (2) change your behavior if you want to, and (3) better understand why others behave as they do. Based on an approach that will take you beyond the outdated thinking that dominates psychology today, Dr. Pfau unveils informative secrets about human behavior, including the techniques that others use to influence what you do, how automatically and routinely you behave in most situations, and why. Our body's structure and organization affect what we do and help us to survive. Learn how our body and the environment around us interact to affect what we perceive and how we behave. Knowing this will put you at the cutting-edge of science and human behavior and allow you to understand your behavior and change it.

Systems Research For Behavioral Science

Author : Buckley
ISBN : 9780202369402
Genre :
File Size : 36. 57 MB
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Contemporary Theories And Systems In Psychology

Author : Benjamin B. Wolman
ISBN : 9781468438000
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 60. 85 MB
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Twenty years is a long time in the life of a science. While the historical roots of psychology have not changed since the first edition of this book, some of the offshoots of the various theories and systems discussed have been crit ically reexamined and have undergone far-reaching modifications. New and bold research has led to a broadening of perspectives, and recent devel opments in several areas required a considerable amount of rewriting. I have been fortunate in the last fifteen years to have worked with about 2,000 psychologists and other behavioral scientists who contributed to several collected volumes I have edited. As the editor-in-chief of the In ternational Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurol ogy, I have had the privilege of reading, scrutinizing, and editing the work of 1,500 experts in psychology and related disciplines. In addition, I have written several books and monographs and over one hundred scientific papers. Armed with all that experience, I have carefully examined the pages of the first edition. Chapter 8 required substantial rewriting and several new sections have been added to other chapters: "Current Soviet Psychol ogy" (Chapter 2, Section 7); "New Ideas on Purposivism" (Chapter 5, Sec tion 4); "Recent Developments in the Sociological School of Psychoanalysis" (Chapter 9, Section 4); and "Present Status of Gestalt Psychology" (Chapter 12, Section 4). Chapter 15 was omitted, and two new chapters were added: Chapter 14 ("Humanistic Psychology") and Chapter 16 ("Selected Research Areas").

Reductionism And Systems Theory In The Life Sciences

Author : Paul Hoyningen-Huene
ISBN : 9789400910034
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 4 MB
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The present volume aims at giving a discussion ot the problems ot reductionism in contemporary life sciences. It contains six papers which deals with reduction/reductionism in different fields ot biological research. Also, the holistic perspective, 1. e. the systems view, is discussed in some ot the papers. The message ot this discussion Is that - whereas reductionism is indeed an important strategy - the systems approach is needed. It is argued by some ot the authors that organisms are complex systems and not just heaps of molecules, 50 that the analytical method does not suffice. Recent developments in systems theory offer the possibility to install a more comprehensive view ot living systems what can be seen particularly in the field ot evolutionary biology. It is true that any organismic activity is molecular, this is to say that it is based on molecular mechanisms. But it is also true that the whole organism displays certain patterns ot behavior which are not just molecular. Any organism can be described as a system ot different levels ot organization different levels ot order and complexity - and it is important, theretore, to study all ot the organizational levels and to see their peculiarities. It should be obvious, however, that there is not one problem ot reduction/reductionism, but that there are many problems linked together and that these problems appear at different levels ot biological research and bio philosophical reflections.

Paradoxical Effects Of Social Behavior

Author : Andreas Diekmann
ISBN : 9783642958748
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 55. 55 MB
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In the history of science "paradoxes" are not only amusing puzzles and chal lenges to the human mind but also driving forces of scientific development. The notion of "paradox" is intimately related to the notion of "contradiction". Logi cal paradoxes allow for the derivation of contradictory propositions (e.g. "Rus sell's set of all sets not being members of themselves" or the ancient problem with propositions like "I am lying" 1), normative paradoxes deal with contradic tions among equally well accepted normative postulates (Arrow's "impossibility theorem", Sen's "Impossibility of a Paretian Liberal") and "factual" paradoxes refer to conflicts between conventional opinion based on an accepted empirical theory and contradictory empirical evidence (e.g. the "St. Petersburg paradox" or the "Allais paradox" in decision theory2). Paradoxes, either logical, normative or factual, also contradict our intui tions. The counter-intuitive property which seems to be a common feature of all paradoxes plays an important part in the empirical social sciences, particularly in the old research tradition of scrutinizing the unintended consequences of pur posive actions. Expectations based on naive theories ignoring interdependencies between individual actions are very often in conflict with "surprising" empirical evidence on collective results of social behavior. Examples are numerous reach ing from panic situations, the individual struggle for status gains resulting in collective deprivation, the less than optimal supply of collective goods etc. to global problems of the armament race and mismanagement of common resources.

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