the jury under fire myth controversy and reform american psychology law society series

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The Jury Under Fire

Author : Edie Greene
ISBN : 9780190201340
Genre :
File Size : 38. 34 MB
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Although the jury is often referred to as one of the bulwarks of the American justice system, it regularly comes under attack. Recent changes to trial procedures, such as reducing jury size, allowing non-unanimous verdicts, and rewriting jury instructions in plain English, were designed to promote greater efficiency and adherence to the law. Other changes, such as capping damages and replacing jurors with judges as arbiters in complex trials, seem designed to restrict the role of laypeople in trial outcomes. Whether these innovations are implemented to facilitate the administration of justice or due to the belief that juries have excessive power and make irrational decisions, they raise a host of questions about their effects on juries' judgments and about justice. Policymakers sometimes make incorrect assumptions about jury behavior, with the result that some reform efforts have had surprising and unintended consequences. The Jury Under Fire reviews a number of controversial beliefs about juries as well as the implications of these views for jury reform. It reviews up-to-date research on both criminal and civil juries that uses a variety of research methodologies: simulations, archival analyses, field studies, and juror interviews. Each chapter focuses on a mistaken assumption or myth about jurors or juries, critiques these myths, and then uses social science research findings to suggest appropriate reforms. Chapters discuss the experience of serving as a juror; jury selection and jury size; and the impact of evidence from eyewitnesses, experts, confessions, and juvenile offenders. The book also covers the process of deciding damages and punishment and the role of emotions in jurors' decision making, and it compares jurors' and judges' decisions. Finally, it reviews a broad range of efforts to reform the jury, including the most promising reforms that have a solid backing in research. Featuring highly visible trials to illustrate key points, The Jury Under Fire will interest researchers in psychology and the law, practicing attorneys, and policymakers, as well as students and trainees in these areas.

The Science And Law Of School Segregation And Diversity

Author : Roger J. R. Levesque
ISBN : 9780190633639
Genre : Law
File Size : 31. 94 MB
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An empirical look at the U.S legal system's effectiveness in addressing school segregation reveals that segregation persists and even surpasses levels experienced before the Civil Rights Movement. Yet, lawmaking continues as though segregation is a thing of the past. The negative effects of racial and ethnic disparities in schooling are well documented, but legal analysts increasingly interpret the law as a system that operates independently of research findings clearly pointing to disparities. For their part, researchers continue to document experiences of segregation without considering the legal system's basic concerns. The Science and Law of School Segregation and Diversity examines the sources of the disconnect between scientific findings on school segregation and how the U.S. legal system addresses it; evaluates these sources' empirical and legal foundations; explains why they persist; and reveals what can be done about them. Roger Levesque, a scholar with expertise in children's rights, family law, and adolescence, provides an overview of how the legal system approaches inequality based on racial/ethnic status. He presents an analysis of the empirical findings relating to the implementation of laws that would address racial disparities in schooling and educational outcomes. Finally, Levesque challenges jurisprudential claims that the developmental sciences do not offer important and useful tools to guide responses to differential treatment and circumstances based on race. This book will appeal to individuals interested in legal responses to schooling's place in society, discrimination, diversity, inequality, and more broadly, civil rights. The text will also appeal to developmentalists interested in prejudice, discrimination, and social development, and researchers, scholars, and students in law and psychology, law and education, law and human development, and law and society.

The Roots Of Modern Psychology And Law

Author : Thomas Grisso
ISBN : 9780190688714
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 20. 34 MB
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Psychology's formal interaction with law began early in the twentieth century, though little in the way of substantive scholarly and professional development occurred until several decades later. The emergence of psychology and law as a modern field of scholarship was marked by the founding of the American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS) in 1969, now approaching its 50th anniversary. The scientific foundation upon which the modern field now rests was established by a small group of psychological researchers, legal scholars, and clinicians. The Roots of Modern Psychology and Law: A Narrative History reveals how the field developed during the first decade following the founding of the American Psychology-Law Society. The contributors to this edited volume, widely considered to be among the "founders" of the field, were responsible for establishing and nurturing many of the subfields and topics in psychology and law or forensic psychology that flourished across the next fifty years. In each chapter, these leaders explain in narrative form how and why the field and the Society developed in its early years through the recounting of key professional events in their careers during the 1970s. In some cases this was their first major research study using psychology applied to legal issues. In others it was their development of seminal ideas or organizational innovations that had a later impact on the field's development. The volume chronicles how an emerging AP-LS and field of psychology and law were shaped by these psychologists, and how their own initial work was, in turn, shaped by the organization.

The Psychology Of Juries

Author : Margaret Bull Kovera
ISBN : 1433827824
Genre : LAW
File Size : 88. 65 MB
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"Juries have a tremendous amount of power and responsibility. They determine the outcomes of trials, including whether a defendant is found guilty or not guilty and, in many cases, what the penalty will be. With the authority to deprive citizens of their freedom and potentially their lives, a fair trial requires that juries function as they should -- without bias. But do they function this way? Are juries capable of disregarding inadmissible evidence? Can they understand the instructions that they are given by the judge? And if not, what safeguards or changes would help? Research on juries once served as a pillar of psychological scholarship, but publication of such research has slowed considerably in recent years. In an attempt to reinvigorate scholarship on this important topic, this volume summarizes what is known about the psychology of juries and makes a strong call to arms for more research. Esteemed jury scholars identify important, yet understudied, topics at the intersection of psychology and law, review what research is currently available on the topics, and then suggest new research questions that would advance the field. Furthermore, the authors evaluate the relative importance of research methods that emphasize generalizability versus tight experimental control. Collectively, the chapters present a comprehensive survey of the literature on jury behavior and decision making and offer a robust agenda to keep researchers busy in years to come"--Publicity materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

The Psychology Of Judicial Decision Making

Author : David E. Klein
ISBN : 9780199710133
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44. 25 MB
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Over the years, psychologists have devoted uncountable hours to learning how human beings make judgments and decisions. As much progress as scholars have made in explaining what judges do over the past few decades, there remains a certain lack of depth to our understanding. Even where scholars can make consensual and successful predictions of a judge's behavior, they will often disagree sharply about exactly what happens in the judge's mind to generate the predicted result. This volume of essays examines the psychological processes that underlie judicial decision making.

Child Sexual Abuse

Author : Margaret-Ellen Pipe
ISBN : 9781135592219
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25. 85 MB
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This volume provides the first rigorous assessment of the research relating to the disclosure of childhood sexual abuse, along with the practical and policy implications of the findings. Leading researchers and practitioners from diverse and international backgrounds offer critical commentary on these previously unpublished findings gathered from both field and laboratory research. Cross-cultural, clinical, and multi-disciplinary perspectives are provided. The goal is to learn more about why children frequently remain silent about their abuse, deny it, or if they do disclose, do so belatedly and incompletely, often recanting their allegations over time. The book opens with a close examination of the existing literature on disclosure and the difficulties in conducting such research. It then examines the individual and contextual factors that determine whether, when, and how childhood sexual abuse is disclosed. This portion reviews how the interview techniques have a profound impact on disclosure patterns. Details of how reluctant children are interviewed are included. The third section examines the broader implications of disclosure for the child, family and peers, and for the suspect. Child Sexual Abuse examines how the interview strategies influence how, when, or if children disclose abuse, by examining both domestic and international data and by analyzing detailed interviews with children. Child Sexual Abuse is for researchers and practitioners from child, forensic, and clinical psychology, social work, and all legal professionals who need to understand this crime.

Jury Decision Making

Author : Dennis J. Devine
ISBN : 9780814725221
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 29. 63 MB
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While jury decision making has received considerable attention from social scientists, there have been few efforts to systematically pull together all the pieces of this research. In Jury Decision Making Dennis J. Devine examines over 50 years of research on juries and offers a “big picture” overview of the field. The volume summarizes existing theories of jury decision making and identifies what we have learned about jury behavior, including the effects of specific courtroom practices, the nature of the trial, the characteristics of the participants, and the evidence itself. Making use of those foundations, Devine offers a new integrated theory of jury decision making that addresses both individual jurors and juries as a whole and discusses its ramifications for the courts. Providing a unique combination of broad scope, extensive coverage of the empirical research conducted over the last half century, and theory advancement, this accessible and engaging volume offers "one-stop shopping" for scholars, students, legal professionals, and those who simply wish to better understand how well the jury system works.

Law And The Modern Mind

Author : Jerome Frank
ISBN : 9781351509558
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 46 MB
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Law and the Modern Mind first appeared in 1930 when, in the words of Judge Charles E. Clark, it "fell like a bomb on the legal world." In the generations since, its influence has grown-today it is accepted as a classic of general jurisprudence.The work is a bold and persuasive attack on the delusion that the law is a bastion of predictable and logical action. Jerome Frank's controversial thesis is that the decisions made by judge and jury are determined to an enormous extent by powerful, concealed, and highly idiosyncratic psychological prejudices that these decision-makers bring to the courtroom.

Forensic And Legal Psychology

Author : Mark Costanzo
ISBN : 9781429205788
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 43 MB
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Using research in clinical, cognitive, developmental, and social psychology, Forensic and Legal Psychology shows how psychological science can enhance the gathering and presentation of evidence, improve legal decision-making, prevent crime, rehabilitate criminals, and promote justice. Although the emphasis is on psychological research, the textbook makes extensive use of actual cases and real trials to engage students and to illustrate the relevance of research findings. Written in a clear, student-friendly style, Forensic and Legal Psychology is designed for both the psychology and law AND forensic psychology class. Visit the preview site for more information: www.worthpublishers.com/costanzokrausspreview

The Roosevelt Myth

Author : John Thomas Flynn
ISBN : 9781610163460
Genre : United States
File Size : 24. 55 MB
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