the design and conduct of meaningful experiments involving human participants 25 scientific principles

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The Design And Conduct Of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants

Author : R. Barker Bausell
ISBN : 9780199385232
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 71. 19 MB
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Designing and conducting experiments involving human participants requires a skillset different from that needed for statistically analyzing the resulting data. The Design and Conduct of Meaningful Experiments Involving Human Participants combines an introduction to scientific culture and ethical mores with specific experimental design and procedural content. Author R. Barker Bausell assumes no statistical background on the part of the reader, resulting in a highly accessible text. Clear instructions are provided on topics ranging from the selection of a societally important outcome variable to potentially efficacious interventions to the conduct of the experiment itself. Early chapters introduce the concept of experimental design in an intuitive manner involving both hypothetical and real-life examples of how people make causal inferences. The fundamentals of formal experimentation, randomization, and the use of control groups are introduced in the same manner, followed by the presentation and explanation of common (and later, more advanced) designs. Replete with synopses of examples from the journal literature and supplemented by 25 experimental principles, this book is designed to serve as an interdisciplinary supplementary text for research-methods courses in the educational, psychological, behavioral, social, and health sciences. It also serves as an excellent primary text for methods seminar courses.

Snake Oil Science

Author : R. Barker Bausell
ISBN : 9780195383423
Genre : Medical
File Size : 51. 92 MB
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The author examines the scientific evidence for and against complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in an entertaining critique of the strangely zealous world of CAM belief and practice that also furnishes an introduction on how to interpret scientific research of any sort.

Power Analysis For Experimental Research

Author : R. Barker Bausell
ISBN : 1139441663
Genre : Science
File Size : 70. 60 MB
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Power analysis is an essential tool for determining whether a statistically significant result can be expected in a scientific experiment prior to the experiment being performed. Many funding agencies and institutional review boards now require power analyses to be carried out before they will approve experiments, particularly where they involve the use of human subjects. This comprehensive, yet accessible, book provides practising researchers with step-by-step instructions for conducting power/sample size analyses, assuming only basic prior knowledge of summary statistics and the normal distribution. It contains a unified approach to statistical power analysis, with numerous easy-to-use tables to guide the reader without the need for further calculations or statistical expertise. This will be an indispensable text for researchers and graduates in the medical and biological sciences needing to apply power analysis in the design of their experiments.

Perception

Author : Randolph Blake
ISBN : 0071112723
Genre : Perception
File Size : 68. 6 MB
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With behavioral and biological approaches integrated throughout, this edition includes expanded material on cognitive influences on perception. New chapters address speech and music perception.

Too Simple To Fail

Author : R. Barker Bausell
ISBN : 9780199753246
Genre : Education
File Size : 84. 92 MB
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Too Simple to Fail presents a startling dissection of what is wrong with our educational system and a set of simple, common-sense steps for improving it. This simplicity, Bausell argues, characterizes both the schooling process and the science of education, as witnessed by legions of researchers who have discovered precious little that their grandmothers didn't already know. Yet surprisingly, based upon the author's own studies and a review of the past 30+ years of educational research, these discoveries boil down to a simple but powerful theory: The only way schools can increase learning is to increase the amount of relevant instructional time for all students. Here, Bausell demonstrates that classroom instruction is hopelessly obsolete, as are our current testing practices, both contributing to the widening opportunity gap between socioeconomic and racial groups. But with an understanding of what is wrong with education today comes the revelation that the answer to these deficiencies has been available to us all along in the form of the tutorial model, the most effective instructional paradigm ever developed. Only in recent years has it become feasible to simulate this extremely effective instructional medium as a universal option that, in effect, would allow schools to provide relevant instruction as a rule and not an exception. If implemented, a new world of opportunity and potential will finally be available to children, whose learning is so crucial for our future. The new model presented in this book has implications for identifying not only what is wrong with the way we educate our young, but also why it is wrong, and how the educational process can be made more efficient, effective, and fair.

Conducting Meaningful Experiments

Author : R. Barker Bausell
ISBN : 9781452254685
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35. 91 MB
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By emphasizing how to think strategically about a research project, the author of this innovative book shows readers the important steps of a scientific study - from the formulation of the study to the write-up of results. Illustrative examples from the social, health and behavioural sciences are used throughout to illustrate 40 principles of good research practice.

The National Bioethics Advisory Commission

Author : Elisa Eiseman
ISBN : 0833033646
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58. 2 MB
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The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) was established in 1995 to advise various government entities on issues arising from research on human biology and behavior. During its five-year tenure, NBAC submitted six reports to the White House containing 120 recommendations on several complex bioethical issues including the cloning of human beings and embryonic stem cell research. This study assesses NBAC's contribution to policymaking by tracking the response to NBAC's recommendations from the president, Congress, government, societies and foundations, other countries, and international groups.

Human Subject Research For Engineers

Author : Joost C.F. de Winter
ISBN : 9783319569642
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38. 69 MB
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This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but may lack the appropriate knowledge on how to do research with human participants. In order to do high-quality human subject research in an ethical manner, several guidelines have to be followed and pitfalls have to be avoided. This book discusses these guidelines and pitfalls. The aim is to prepare engineers and engineering students to carry out independent research in a responsible manner.

How People Learn

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309131971
Genre : Education
File Size : 40. 20 MB
Format : PDF
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.

Obedience To Authority

Author : Stanley Milgram
ISBN : 9780062803405
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 47. 31 MB
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THE INSPIRATION FOR THE MAJOR MOTION PICTURE THE EXPERIMENTER “The classic account of the human tendency to follow orders, no matter who they hurt or what their consequences.” — Michael Dirda, Washington Post Book World In the 1960s Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram famously carried out a series of experiments that forever changed our perceptions of morality and free will. The subjects—or “teachers”—were instructed to administer electroshocks to a human “learner,” with the shocks becoming progressively more powerful and painful. Controversial but now strongly vindicated by the scientific community, these experiments attempted to determine to what extent people will obey orders from authority figures regardless of consequences. “Milgram’s experiments on obedience have made us more aware of the dangers of uncritically accepting authority,” wrote Peter Singer in the New York Times Book Review. Featuring a new introduction from Dr. Philip Zimbardo, who conducted the famous Stanford Prison Experiment, Obedience to Authority is Milgram’s fascinating and troubling chronicle of his classic study and a vivid and persuasive explanation of his conclusions.

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