the cognitive animal empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition mit press

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The Cognitive Animal

Author : Marc Bekoff
ISBN : 0262523221
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 70. 68 MB
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An interdisciplinary anthology of essays on animal cognition.

Species Of Mind

Author : Colin Allen
ISBN : 0262511088
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 64. 10 MB
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Colin Allen (a philosopher) and Marc Bekoff (a cognitive ethologist) approach their work from a perspective that considers arguments about evolutionary continuity to be as applicable to the study of animal minds and brains as they are to comparative studies of kidneys, stomachs, and hearts. Cognitive ethologists study the comparative, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the mental phenomena of animals. Philosophy can provide cognitive ethology with an analytical basis for attributing cognition to nonhuman animals and for studying it, and cognitive ethology can help philosophy to explain mentality in naturalistic terms by providing data on the evolution of cognition. The heart of Allen and Bekoff's book is this reciprocal relationship between philosophical theories of mind and empirical studies of animal cognition. The interdisciplinary approach reveals flaws in common objections to the view that animals have minds.

Mindreading Animals

Author : Robert W. Lurz
ISBN : 9780262016056
Genre : Nature
File Size : 89. 1 MB
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Animals live in a world of other minds, human and nonhuman, and their well-being andsurvival often depends on what is going on in the minds of these other creatures. But do animalsknow that other creatures have minds? And how would we know if they do? In MindreadingAnimals, Robert Lurz offers a fresh approach to the hotly debated question of mental-stateattribution in nonhuman animals. Some empirical researchers and philosophers claim that some animalsare capable of anticipating other creatures' behaviors by interpreting observable cues as signs ofunderlying mental states; others claim that animals are merely clever behavior-readers, capable ofusing such cues to anticipate others' behaviors without interpreting them as evidence of underlyingmental states. Lurz argues that neither position is compelling, and proposes a way to move thedebate, and the field, forward. Lurz presents a new approach to understanding whatmindreading in animals might be, offering a bottom-up model of mental-state attribution that isbuilt upon cognitive abilities that animals are known to possess rather than on a preconceived viewof the mind applicable to mindreading abilities in humans. Lurz goes on to describe an innovativeseries of new experimental protocols for animal mindreading research that overcome a persistentmethodological problem in the field, known as the "logical problem" or "Povinelli's challenge."These protocols show in detail how various types of animals -- from apes to monkeys to ravens todogs -- can be tested for perceptual state and belief attribution.

The Consciousness Paradox

Author : Rocco J. Gennaro
ISBN : 9780262016605
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 69. 98 MB
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A defense of a version of the higher-order thought (HOT) theory of consciousness with special attention to such topics as concepts and animal consciousness. Consciousness is arguably the most important area within contemporary philosophy of mind and perhaps the most puzzling aspect of the world. Despite an explosion of research from philosophers, psychologists, and scientists, attempts to explain consciousness in neurophysiological, or even cognitive, terms are often met with great resistance. In The Consciousness Paradox, Rocco Gennaro aims to solve an underlying paradox, namely, how it is possible to hold a number of seemingly inconsistent views, including higher-order thought (HOT) theory, conceptualism, infant and animal consciousness, concept acquisition, and what he calls the HOT-brain thesis. He defends and further develops a metapsychological reductive representational theory of consciousness and applies it to several importantly related problems. Gennaro proposes a version of the HOT theory of consciousness that he calls the "wide intrinsicality view" and shows why it is superior to various alternatives, such as self-representationalism and first-order representationalism. HOT theory says that what makes a mental state conscious is that a suitable higher-order thought is directed at that mental state. Thus Gennaro argues for an overall philosophical theory of consciousness while applying it to other significant issues not usually addressed in the philosophical literature on consciousness. Most cognitive science and empirical works on such topics as concepts and animal consciousness do not address central philosophical theories of consciousness. Gennaro's integration of empirical and philosophical concerns will make his argument of interest to both philosophers and nonphilosophers.

Model Based Reasoning In Science Technology And Medicine

Author : Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN : 9783540719861
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 54. 90 MB
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The volume is based on papers presented at the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Medicine held in China in 2006. The presentations explore how scientific thinking uses models and explanatory reasoning to produce creative changes in theories and concepts. The contributions to the book are written by researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology. They include the subject area’s most recent results and achievements.

Nurturing The Older Brain And Mind

Author : Pamela M. Greenwood
ISBN : 9780262300551
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 42. 46 MB
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Although our physical abilities clearly decline as we age, cognitive decline in healthy old age is neither universal nor inevitable. In Nurturing the Older Brain, Pamela Greenwood and Raja Parasuraman show that scientific research does not support the popular notion of the inexorable and progressive effects of cognitive aging in all older adults. They report that many adults maintain a high level of cognitive function into old age and that certain experiential and lifestyle factors--including education, exercise, diet, and opportunities for new learning--contribute to the preservation of cognitive abilities. Many popular accounts draw similar conclusions and give similar lifestyle advice but lack supporting scientific evidence. Greenwood and Parasuraman offer a comprehensive review of research on cognitive and brain aging. They show that even the aged brain remains capable of plasticity -- the ability to adapt to and benefit from experience -- and they summarize evidence that brain plasticity is heightened by certain types of cognitive training, by aerobic exercise, and by certain diets. They also report on the somewhat controversial use of estrogen and cognition-enhancing drugs, on environmental adaptations (including "virtual assistants") that help older adults "age in place," and on genetic factors in cognitive aging. The past twenty years of research points to ways that older adults can lead rich and cognitively vital lives. As millions of baby boomers head toward old age, Greenwood and Parasuraman's accessible book could not be more timely.

The Brain S Representational Power

Author : Cyriel M.A. Pennartz
ISBN : 9780262029315
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 86 MB
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A neuroscientifically informed theory arguing that the core of qualitative conscious experience arises from the integration of sensory and cognitive modalities.

Rationality And Logic

Author : Hanna
ISBN : 9780262263115
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 50. 35 MB
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In Rationality and Logic, Robert Hanna argues that logic is intrinsically psychological and that human psychology is intrinsically logical. He claims that logic is cognitively constructed by rational animals (including humans) and that rational animals are essentially logical animals. In order to do so, he defends the broadly Kantian thesis that all (and only) rational animals possess an innate cognitive "logic faculty." Hanna's claims challenge the conventional philosophical wisdom that sees logic as a fully formal or "topic-neutral" science irreconcilably separate from the species- or individual-specific focus of empirical psychology.Logic and psychology went their separate ways after attacks by Frege and Husserl on logical psychologism--the explanatory reduction of logic to empirical psychology. Hanna argues, however, that--despite the fact that logical psychologism is false--there is an essential link between logic and psychology. Rational human animals constitute the basic class of cognizers or thinkers studied by cognitive psychology; given the connection between rationality and logic that Hanna claims, it follows that the nature of logic is significantly revealed to us by cognitive psychology. Hanna's proposed "logical cognitivism" has two important consequences: the recognition by logically oriented philosophers that psychologists are their colleagues in the metadiscipline of cognitive science; and radical changes in cognitive science itself. Cognitive science, Hanna argues, is not at bottom a natural science; it is both an objective or truth-oriented science and a normative human science, as is logic itself.

Adaptive Rhetoric

Author : Alex C. Parrish
ISBN : 9781317918011
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 79. 42 MB
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Rhetorical scholarship has for decades relied solely on culture to explain persuasive behavior. While this focus allows for deep explorations of historical circumstance, it neglects the powerful effects of biology on rhetorical behavior – how our bodies and brains help shape and constrain rhetorical acts. Not only is the cultural model incomplete, but it tacitly endorses the fallacy of human exceptionalism. By introducing evolutionary biology into the study of rhetoric, this book serves as a model of a biocultural paradigm. Being mindful of biological and cultural influences allows for a deeper view of rhetoric, one that is aware of the ubiquity of persuasive behavior in nature. Human and nonhuman animals, and even some plants, persuade to survive - to live, love, and cooperate. That this broad spectrum of rhetorical behavior exists in the animal world demonstrates how much we can learn from evolutionary biology. By incorporating scholarship on animal signaling into the study of rhetoric, the author explores how communication has evolved, and how numerous different species of animals employ similar persuasive tactics in order to overcome similar problems. This cross-species study of rhetoric allows us to trace the origins of our own persuasive behaviors, providing us with a deeper history of rhetoric that transcends the written and the televised, and reveals the artifacts of our communicative past.

Natural Language And Possible Minds

Author : Prakash Mondal
ISBN : 9789004344204
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 67. 68 MB
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Natural Language and Possible Minds: How Language Uncovers the Cognitive Landscape of Nature examines the intrinsic connection between natural language and the nature of mentality, offering to show how language can shed light on the forms of other types of mentality in non-humans.

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