the blood brain barrier in health and disease volume one morphology biology and immune function 1

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The Blood Brain Barrier In Health And Disease Volume One

Author : Katerina Dorovini-Zis
ISBN : 9781498727068
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 46 MB
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Located at the interface between blood and the brain, the blood-brain barrier is a dynamic permeability barrier formed by a continuous layer of specialized endothelial cells endowed with important permeability, transport, and regulatory functions that both protect the internal milieu of the brain and allow essential nutrients to be transported into the brain. Over the last 25 years, we have witnessed remarkable expansion of our knowledge of the structure, biology, and function of the cerebral endothelium. In The Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Disease, Volume 1, international experts discuss basic and new concepts and most recent advances pertaining to the development of the cerebral microvascular system. Subjects include the structure, function, permeability properties, transport mechanisms, and the inherent heterogeneity of the cerebral endothelium; the anatomy and physiological properties of the neurovascular unit; functional aspects of the choroid plexus; and important concepts and advances made over the last two decades that have shaped our understanding of the immunological function of the blood-brain barrier. This book is intended to serve as a valuable source of basic and advanced information for researchers, students, and clinicians interested in this fast-expanding field and stimulate further research well into the future.

The Blood Brain Barrier And Inflammation

Author : Ruth Lyck
ISBN : 9783319455143
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74. 3 MB
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This PIR volume presents a comprehensive collection of reviews that focus on the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during steady-state and inflamed conditions. Within the central nervous system (CNS) the constantly changing bloodstream is strictly separated from the CNS parenchyma by the BBB. However, viruses, bacteria, parasites and auto-aggressive immune cells can penetrate the barrier and significantly contribute to CNS inflammation. The BBB can actively contribute to neuroinflammation by presentation of chemokines, expression of cell adhesion molecules and alterations of barrier properties. As such, understanding the role of the BBB under healthy and pathological conditions is essential to the development of new drugs to efficiently combat inflammatory diseases of the CNS.

Blood Spinal Cord And Brain Barriers In Health And Disease

Author : Hari Shanker Sharma
ISBN : 9780080528229
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 80 MB
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Recent research into the anatomy and pathophysiology of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers suggests that a breakdown in these barriers can result in several diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). This book presents new findings in the area of blood-brain barrier research that suggest barriers play important roles in health and disease conditions. It also discusses the development of new drugs that can modulate the barrier function in the CNS and may provide new approaches to treating neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other motor neuron diseases, as well as spinal cord trauma. Key Features * Presents the recent progress made in the research on the blood-brain and spinal cord barrier * Contains numerous illustrations of light and electron micrographs * Includes Foreword written by two eminent researchers in the field, Milton Brightman and Jorge Cervos-Navarro

Neurosurgical Infectious Disease

Author : Walter A. Hall
ISBN : 9781604068214
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23. 14 MB
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Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to successful outcomes in infections involving the central nervous system, which can cause significant neurological morbidity and mortality. Neurosurgical Infectious Disease: Surgical and Nonsurgical Management is a comprehensive guide that gives surgeons the core knowledge they need to diagnose, treat, and prevent infectious diseases of the central nervous system. Key Features: Emphasizes newer surgical techniques, including: endoscopy, neuronavigation, and intraoperative guidance Covers contemporary radiologic diagnostic techniques and provides excellent imaging examples Includes chapters on antibiotic prophylaxis, intracranial infection, and the infection of implanted devices This excellent neurosurgical reference will be an essential part of the armamentarium used by neurosurgeons and infectious disease specialists in their daily practice.

Imaging And Monitoring Astrocytes In Health And Disease

Author : Carole Escartin
ISBN : 9782889193936
Genre :
File Size : 25. 89 MB
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Astrocytes are key cellular partners to neurons in the brain. They play an important role in multiple processes such as neurotransmitter recycling, trophic support, antioxidant defense, ionic homeostasis, inflammatory modulation, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, neurogenesis, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In addition to their crucial involvement in normal brain physiology, it is well known that astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype under most acute and chronic pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, brain cancer, epilepsy, demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the functional impact of astrocyte reactivity is still unclear. During the last decades, the development of innovative approaches to study astrocytes has significantly improved our understanding of their prominent role in brain function and their contribution to disease states. In particular, new genetic tools, molecular probes, and imaging techniques that achieve high spatial and temporal resolution have revealed new insight into astrocyte functions in situ. This Research Topic provides a collection of cutting-edge techniques, approaches and models to study astrocytes in health and disease. It also suggests new directions to achieve discoveries on these fascinating cells.

Reversibility Of Chronic Disease And Hypersensitivity Volume 4

Author : William J. Rea
ISBN : 9781315357140
Genre : Medical
File Size : 31. 60 MB
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Reversibility of Chronic Disease and Hypersensitivity, Volume 4: The Environmental Aspects of Chemical Sensitivity is the fourth of an encyclopedic five-volume set describing the basic physiology, chemical sensitivity, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic degenerative disease studied in a 5x less polluted controlled environment. This text focuses on treatment techniques, strategies, protocols, prescriptions, and technologies. Distinguishing itself from previous works on chemical sensitivity, it explains newly understood mechanisms of chronic disease and hypersensitivity, involving core molecular function. The authors discuss new information on ground regulation system, genetics, the autonomic nervous system, and immune and non-immune functions. The book also includes the latest technology and cutting-edge techniques, numerous figures, and supporting research.

Microcirculation

Author : Ronald F. Tuma
ISBN : 0080569935
Genre : Science
File Size : 32. 14 MB
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This reference is a volume in the Handbook of Physiology, co-published with The American Physiological Society. Growth in knowledge about the microcirculation has been explosive with the field becoming fragmented into numerous subdisciplines and subspecialties. This volume pulls all of the critical information into one volume. Meticulously edited and reviewed. Benefit: Provides investigators a unique tool to explore the significance of their findings in the context of other aspects of the microcirculation. In this way, the updated edition has a direct role in helping to develop new pathways of research and scholarship Highlights the explosive growth in knowledge about the microcirculation including the biology of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), endothelial cell signaling, angiogenesis, cell adhesion molecules, lymphocyte trafficking, ion channels and receptors, and propagated vasomotor responses. Benefit: Microcirculatory biology has become fragmented into numerous sub-disciplines and subspecialties, and these reference reintegrates the information in one volume

Dual Role Of Microglia In Health And Disease Pushing The Balance Towards Repair

Author : Raquel Ferreira
ISBN : 9782889194926
Genre :
File Size : 27. 16 MB
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Microglial cells play a vital role in the innate immune response occurring in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Under physiologic conditions, microglia dynamically patrol the brain parenchyma and participate in the remodeling of active neuronal circuits. Accordingly, microglia can boost synaptic plasticity by removing apoptotic cells and by phagocytizing axon terminals and dendritic spines that form inappropriate neural connections. Upon brain and spinal cord injury or infection, microglia act as the first line of immune defense by promoting the clearance of damaged cells or infectious agents and by releasing neurotrophins and/ or proneurogenic factors that support neuronal survival and regeneration. Recently, two main pathways were suggested for microglia activation upon stimuli. Classical activation is induced by Toll-like receptor agonists and Th1 cytokines and polarizes cells to an M1 state, mainly leading to the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and nitric oxide and to grave neural damage. Alternative activation is mediated by Th2 cytokines and polarizes cells to an M2a state inducing the release of antiinflammatory factors. These findings have further fueled the discussion on whether microglia has a detrimental or beneficial action (M1 or M2-associated phenotypes, respectively) in the diseased or injured CNS and, more importantly, on whether we can shift the balance to a positive outcome. Although microglia and macrophages share several common features, upon M1 and M2 polarizing conditions, they are believed to develop distinct phenotypic and functional properties which translate into different patterns of activity. Moreover, microglia/macrophages seem to have developed a tightly organized system of maintenance of CNS homeostasis, since cells found in different structures have different morphology and specific function (e.g. meningeal macrophages, perivascular macrophages, choroid plexus macrophages). Nevertheless, though substantial work has been devoted to microglia function, consensus around their exact origin, their role during development, as well as the exact nature of their interaction with other cells of the CNS has not been met. This issue discusses how microglial cells sustain neuronal activity and plasticity in the healthy CNS as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms developed by microglia in response to injury and disease. Understanding the mechanisms involved in microglia actions will enforce the development of new strategies to promote an efficient CNS repair by committing microglia towards neuronal survival and regeneration.

The Blood Brain Barrier In Health And Disease Volume Two

Author : Katerina Dorovini-Zis
ISBN : 9781498727099
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 11 MB
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Located at the interface between blood and the brain, the blood-brain barrier is a dynamic permeability barrier formed by a continuous layer of specialized endothelial cells endowed with important permeability, transport, and regulatory functions that both protect the internal milieu of the brain and allow essential nutrients to be transported into the brain. Abnormalities of the blood-brain barrier are increasingly recognized as a key component in the pathogenesis of a range of primary diseases of the brain and the secondary involvement of the brain from pathological processes in other organs. In The Blood-Brain Barrier in Health and Disease, Volume 2, international experts present comprehensive reviews and research accounts on blood-brain barrier dysfunction in infectious and inflammatory diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, stroke, trauma, vitamin deficiency, exposure to neurotoxicants, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and neurodegenerative diseases. This book is intended to serve as a guide and reference to basic and advanced information for researchers, students, and clinicians interested in this fast-expanding field and stimulate further research well into the future.

The Blood Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier

Author : Wei Zheng
ISBN : 1420023403
Genre : Medical
File Size : 60. 84 MB
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Despite the existence of two barrier systems in the brain, research over the last century has mostly focused on the blood-brain barrier rather than on the blood-CSF barrier. Today, there is a greater understanding of the function of the blood-CSF barrier and of the choroid plexus, a tissue that is the primary site of this barrier. With the growing number of studies that focus on the role of the blood-CSF barrier in CNS homeostasis and neurological disorders, a modern overview of the blood-CSF barrier is long overdue. The Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier is exclusively devoted to the blood-CSF barrier. Internationally renowned experts discuss the most recent progress in the field of choroid plexus physiology and update our knowledge of the function of the blood-CSF barrier. The book begins with an overview of the development and morphology of the choroid plexus, and then covers various aspects of its function, such as the regulation of choroidal blood flow, ion transport, and the production and transport of polypeptides. Following an extensive section on the role of the choroid plexus in CNS disorders, the final section discusses in vitro, in vivo, and in situ models of the blood-CSF barrier. This unique book analyzes a wealth of new research on the proven and potential roles of the choroid plexus/blood-CSF barrier in the brain. It is a valuable resource that will foster future studies in neuroscience, pharmacology, and toxicology.

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