surface area and porosity determinations by physisorption measurements and theory

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Surface Area And Porosity Determinations By Physisorption

Author : James B. Condon
ISBN : 0080481264
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 88. 44 MB
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Surface Area and Porosity Determinations by Physisorption is a practical guide for industry or academics to the measurement of surface area and pore size using the tool of physical adsorption. Starting with a brief description of what physical adsorption is and the raw data that is obtained. The instrumentation for measuring this isotherm is described in some details. Recommendations are presented as to what instrumentation would be most appropriate for a particular application. An appendix of current commercial instruments is included. The mathematics required for the simple analysis of the obtained isotherm is presented with step-wise instructions for the analysis of the more useful analysis methods. Subsequent chapters describe the analyses and the theories behind the analyses in more detail. * Includes over 150 figures and tables which illustrate the equipment and examples data acquired * Provides a practical guide for measuring and interpreting physical adsorption * Up-to-date aspects of the more subtle physical adsorption theories such as density functional theory and the quantum mechanical chi theory are presented

Adsorption By Powders And Porous Solids

Author : Jean Rouquerol
ISBN : 9780080970363
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 89 MB
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The declared objective of this book is to provide an introductory review of the various theoretical and practical aspects of adsorption by powders and porous solids with particular reference to materials of technological importance. The primary aim is to meet the needs of students and non-specialists who are new to surface science or who wish to use the advanced techniques now available for the determination of surface area, pore size and surface characterization. In addition, a critical account is given of recent work on the adsorptive properties of activated carbons, oxides, clays and zeolites. Provides a comprehensive treatment of adsorption at both the gas/solid interface and the liquid/solid interface Includes chapters dealing with experimental methodology and the interpretation of adsorption data obtained with porous oxides, carbons and zeolites Techniques capture the importance of heterogeneous catalysis, chemical engineering and the production of pigments, cements, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals

Gas Adsorption In Metal Organic Frameworks

Author : T. Grant Glover
ISBN : 9780429891762
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 82. 11 MB
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This text discusses the synthesis, characterization, and application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the purpose of adsorbing gases. It provides details on the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer, and diffusion that are commonly required when evaluating MOF materials for gas separation and storage applications and includes a discussion of molecular simulation tools needed to examine gas adsorption in MOFs. Additionally, the work presents techniques that can be used to characterize MOFs after gas adsorption has occurred and provides guidance on the water stability of these materials. Lastly, applications of MOFs are considered with a discussion of how to measure the gas storage capacity of MOFs, a discussion of how to screen MOFs to for filtration applications, and a discussion of the use of MOFs to perform industrial separations, such as olefin/paraffin separations. Throughout the work, fundamental information, such as a discussion on the calculation of MOF surface area and description of adsorption phenomena in packed-beds, is balanced with a discussion of the results from research literature.

Bio Aggregates Based Building Materials

Author : Sofiane Amziane
ISBN : 9789402410310
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 27. 62 MB
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The work of the RILEM Technical Committee (TC -236 BBM) was dedicated to the study of construction materials made from plant particles. It considered the question whether building materials containing as main raw material recyclable and easily available plant particles are renewable. This book includes a state-of-the-art report and an appendix. The state-of-the-art report relates to the description of vegetal aggregates. Then, hygrothermal properties, fire resistance, durability and finally the impact of the variability of the method of production of bio-based concrete are assessed. The appendix is a TC report which presents the experience of a working group. The goal was to define testing methods for the measurement of water absorption, bulk density, particle size distribution, and thermal conductivity of bio aggregates. The work is based on a first round robin test of the TC-BBM where the protocols in use by the different laboratories (labs) are compared. p>

Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs

Author : Robert O. Williams III
ISBN : 9783319426099
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 56 MB
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The objective of this volume is to consolidate within a single text the most current knowledge, practical methods, and regulatory considerations pertaining to formulations development with poorly water-soluble molecules. A pharmaceutical scientist’s approach toward solubility enhancement of a poorly water-soluble molecule typically includes detailed characterization of the compound’s physiochemical properties, solid-state modifications, advanced formulation design, non-conventional process technologies, advanced analytical characterization, and specialized product performance analysis techniques. The scientist must also be aware of the unique regulatory considerations pertaining to the non-conventional approaches often utilized for poorly water-soluble drugs. One faced with the challenge of developing a drug product from a poorly soluble compound must possess at minimum a working knowledge of each of the abovementioned facets and detailed knowledge of most. In light of the magnitude of the growing solubility problem to drug development, this is a significant burden especially when considering that knowledge in most of these areas is relatively new and continues to develop

Powder Surface Area And Porosity

Author : Seymour Lowell
ISBN : 9789401579551
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 63. 80 MB
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The rapid growth of interest in powders and their surface properties in many diverse industries prompted the writing of this book for those who have the need to make meaningful measurements without the benefit of years of experience. It is intended as an introduction to some of the elementary theory and experimental methods used to study the surface area, porosity, density, and particle size of powders. It may be found useful by those with little or no training in solid surfaces who have the need to learn quickly the rudiments of surface area, density, pore size, and particle size measurements. S. Lowell J.E. Shields Symbols Use of symbols for purposes other than those indicated in the following table are so defined in the text. Some symbols not shown in the table are also defined in the text. d adsorbate cross-sectional area A area; condensation coefficient; collision frequency C BET constant c concentration D diameter; coefficient of thermal diffusion E adsorption potential permeability aspect factor f F flow rate; force; feed rate g gravitational constant G Gibbs free energy S G free surface energy h heat of immersion per unit area; height H enthalpy heat of immersion Hi heat of adsorption Hsv BET intercept; filament current k thermal conductivity; specific reaction rate K Harkins-Jura constant C length L heat of liquefaction M mass M molecular weight MPa megapascals number of moles n number of molecules; number of particles N N Avogadro's num'ber molecular collisions per square cm per second

Characterization Of Porous Solids And Powders Surface Area Pore Size And Density

Author : Seymour Lowell
ISBN : 9781402023033
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 88 MB
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The growth of interest in newly developed porous materials has prompted the writing of this book for those who have the need to make meaningful measurements without the benefit of years of experience. One might consider this new book as the 4th edition of "Powder Surface Area and Porosity" (Lowell & Shields), but for this new edition we set out to incorporate recent developments in the understanding of fluids in many types of porous materials, not just powders. Based on this, we felt that it would be prudent to change the title to "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Porosity and Density". This book gives a unique overview of principles associated with the characterization of solids with regard to their surface area, pore size, pore volume and density. It covers methods based on gas adsorption (both physi and chemisorption), mercury porosimetry and pycnometry. Not only are the theoretical and experimental basics of these techniques presented in detail but also, in light of the tremendous progress made in recent years in materials science and nanotechnology, the most recent developments are described. In particular, the application of classical theories and methods for pore size analysis are contrasted with the most advanced microscopic theories based on statistical mechanics (e.g. Density Functional Theory and Molecular Simulation). The characterization of heterogeneous catalysts is more prominent than in earlier editions; the sections on mercury porosimetry and particularly chemisorption have been updated and greatly expanded.

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : UOM:39015066099238
Genre : English literature
File Size : 62. 50 MB
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Fly Ash Zeolites

Author : Bhagwanjee Jha
ISBN : 9789811014048
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 25 MB
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This book presents a thorough review of the state-of-knowledge and recent innovations in the synthesis of pure and improved grades of fly ash zeolites (FAZ). Addressing improvements to conventional methods, it also showcases a novel technique for the synthesis of high cation exchangers from fly ash and detailed characterization techniques for the products obtained. In addition, it examines in detail various areas of specific applications of fly ash zeolites. Over the years, several methods such as hydrothermal, fusion prior to hydrothermal, microwave assisted hydrothermal and molten salt techniques for producing FAZ have been developed. However, one-step and two-step reactions between the fly ash and alkali usually generate alkaline wastes that may cause environmental contamination. In addition, the separation of FAZ from the partially activated fly ash (the impurities) remains a major concern for researchers and industrialists alike. /divIn view of these challenges, this book presents a novel technique for three-step activation (TSA), which focuses on recycling the fly ash-NaOH-water reaction by-products until zeolitic residue is formed. The FAZ (the final residue after third step reactions) synthesized in this manner exhibits exceptionally high cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and pore area. This book offers a comprehensive compendium of reading material on fly ash and its recycled product, the zeolites. Students at both undergraduate and graduate levels, researchers, and practicing engineers will all find this book to be a valuable guide in their respective fields.

Novel Carbon Adsorbents

Author : J. M. D. Tascón
ISBN : 9780080977447
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 99 MB
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Following in the lineage of Adsorption by Carbons (Bottani & Tascon, 2008), this work explores current research within contemporary novel carbon adsorbents. Both basic and applied aspects are discussed for this important class of materials. The first section of the book introduces physical adsorption and carbonaceous materials, and is followed by a section concerning the fundamentals of adsorption by carbons. This leads to development of a series of theoretical concepts that serve as an introduction to the following section in which adsorption is mainly envisaged as a tool to characterize the porous texture and surface chemistry of carbons. Particular attention is paid to novel nanocarbons, and the electrochemistry of adsorption by carbons is also addressed. Finally, several important technological applications of gas and liquid adsorption by carbons in areas such as environmental protection and energy storage constitute the last section of the book. Encompasses fundamental science of adsorption by carbons, in one location, supporting current R&D without extensive literature review Describes adsorption as it is currently applied to major novel types of carbon materials, including carbon gels, carbide-derived carbons, zeolite-templated carbvons, hydrothermal carbons, carbon nanohorns and graphene Specific discussion of fuel storage, environmental remediation and biomedical applications, of contemporary interest to many surface chemists and applications-focused researchers

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