sulfuric acid manufacture analysis control and optimization

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Sulfuric Acid Manufacture

Author : Matt King
ISBN : 008048123X
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48. 12 MB
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More sulfuric acid is produced every year than any other chemical. It has a wide range of uses including phosphate fertilizer production, explosives, glue, wood preservatives, and lead-acid batteries. It is also a particularily corrosive and dangerous acid, with extreme environmental and health hazards if not manufactured, used, and regulated properly. Sulfuric Acid Manufacture: Analysis, Control and Optimization keeps the important topics of safety and regulation at the forefront as it overviews and analyzes the process of sulfuric acid manufacture. The first nine chapters focus on the chemical plant processes involved in industrial acidmaking, with considerable data input from the authors' industrial colleagues. The last 15 chapters are dedicated to the mathematical analysis of acidmaking. Both Authors bring years of hands-on knowledge and experience to the work, making it an exceptional reference for anyone involved in sulfuric acid research and/or manufacture. * Only book to examine the processes of sulfuric acid manufacture from an industrial plant standpoint as well as mathematical. * Draws on the industrial connections of the authors, through their years of hands-on experience in sulfuric acid manufacture. * A considerable amount of industrial plant data is presented to support the text.

Extractive Metallurgy Of Nickel Cobalt And Platinum Group Metals

Author : Frank Kenneth Crundwell
ISBN : 9780080968094
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 32 MB
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This book describes and explains the methods by which three related ores and recyclables are made into high purity metals and chemicals, for materials processing. It focuses on present day processes and future developments rather than historical processes. Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts - with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage. The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author's previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore - e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science. Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plants Discusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one book Reviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic ore Industrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources

Sustainable Production Of Bulk Chemicals

Author : Mo Xian
ISBN : 9789401774758
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 35 MB
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The book describes in detail the authors’ current understanding of the models that incorporate the concepts and techniques of synthetic chemistry, chemical engineering, synthetic biology and bioengineering. These include chemical engineering methods for green chemical production from sustainable bio-resources; using synthetic chemistry and kinetics of chemical reaction concepts in the construction of non-natural enzymes and bio-pathways, partial integration of bioconversion steps in chemical synthesis routes; integration of chemo-, bio- conversion steps in one system; microbial production of chemicals from economic chemo-resourced chemicals; and chemical production of value-added derivatives from bio-based amino acids. It provides a valuable reference source for laboratory and industrial professionals in a number of chemical and biological disciplines such as synthetic chemistry, synthetic biology, chemical engineering, biotechnology, microbiology, molecular biology, etc. Dr. Mo Xian is a Professor at Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Flash Smelting

Author : W. G. Davenport
ISBN : 9781483150901
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 27 MB
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Flash Smelting: Analysis, Control and Optimization deals with the analysis, control, and optimization of flash smelting. This book explores flash smelting in general and Outokumpu and Inco flash smelting in particular, and also presents a mathematical description for the flash smelting process. A set of mass and heat balance equations that can be used to describe steady state smelting under autogenous or nearautogenous smelting conditions is developed. This text has 20 chapters and begins with an overview of flash smelting and its products; the main raw materials of copper flash smelting; chemical reactions in the flash furnace; impurities in the concentrates that are fed to the flash furnace; and the operation of industrial flash furnaces. Attention then turns to Outokumpu flash smelting, Inço flash smelting, and mathematical representation of flash smelting. The chapters that follow focus on the effects of blast preheat on flash smelting; the combustion of fossil fuel in the flash furnace; and the effect of matte grade on the fossil fuel, industrial oxygen, and blast preheat requirements of flash smelting. Equations are used to determine the effects of such factors as concentrate composition, blast temperature, and dust carryout, and as the basis for optimizing and controlling the flash smelting process. This book will be of interest to both mathematicians and metallurgists.

Flash Smelting

Author :
ISBN : 0873394992
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 79 MB
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Extractive Metallurgy Of Copper

Author : William G. Davenport
ISBN : 0080531520
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42. 63 MB
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This new edition has been extensively revised and updated since the 3rd edition published in 1994. It contains an even greater depth of industrial information, focussing on how copper metal is extracted from ore and scrap, and how this extraction could be made more efficient. Modern high intensity smelting processes are presented in detail, specifically flash, Contop, Isasmelt, Noranda, Teniente and direct-to-blister smelting. Considerable attention is paid to the control of SO2 emissions and manufacture of H2SO4. Recent developments in electrorefining, particularly stainless steel cathode technology are examined. Leaching, solvent extraction and electrowinning are evaluated together with their impact upon optimizing mineral resource utilization. The book demonstrates how recycling of copper and copper alloy scrap is an important source of copper and copper alloys. Copper quality control is also discussed and the book incorporates an important section on extraction economics. Each chapter is followed by a summary of concepts previously described and offers suggested further reading and references.

A Framework For Explicit Model Predictive Control Using Adjustable Robust Optimization And Economic Optimization Of An Industrial Scale Sulfuric Acid Plant

Author : Manuel Tejeda-Iglesias
ISBN : OCLC:1087391990
Genre : Chemical processes
File Size : 63. 91 MB
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Optimization plays an important role in the operation of chemical engineering systems. Due to their typical size, different optimization tools and techniques are required to improve the efficiency in process operations. In this thesis, a mathematical tool is developed to address the issue of optimal control for linear systems under uncertainty. Also, a comprehensive plant model describing the behaviour of an industrial-scale Sulphuric Acid plant is developed to assist in identification of the optimal operating conditions under uncertainty Model predictive control (MPC) is considered an attractive strategy for the optimal control of complex chemical engineering systems. Conventional MPC involves solving an optimization problem online to determine the control actions that minimize a performance criterion function. The high computational expense associated with conventional MPC may make its application challenging for large-scale systems. Explicit MPC has been developed to solve the optimization problem offline. In this work, adjustable robust optimization (ARO) is used to obtain the explicit solution to the MPC optimization problem offline for discrete-time linear time invariant systems with constraints on inputs and states. In the robust model formulation an uncertain additive time-varying error is introduced to account for model uncertainty resulting from plant-model mismatch caused by un-measurable disturbances or process nonlinearities. The explicit solution is an optimal time-varying sequence of feedback control laws for the control inputs parameterized by the system's states. The control laws are evaluated in a time-varying manner when the process is online using state measurements. This study shows that the resulting control laws ensure the implemented control actions maintain the system states within their feasible region for any realizations of the uncertain parameter within the uncertainty set. Three case studies are presented to demonstrate the proposed approach and to highlight the benefits and limitations of this method. The optimal operating condition to which an optimal controller will drive a large industrial-scale plant is identified using a different set of tools. In this thesis, an industrial-scale sulfuric acid plant is considered. The production of sulfuric acid is an important process due to its many applications and its use as a mitigation strategy for Sulphur dioxide (SO2). The reactor of the sulfuric acid plant has been the focus of many studies, and thus there has been very limited works in the literature that have analyzed the complete sulfuric acid plant. In this work, the flowsheet for an industrial-scale sulfuric acid plant with scrubbing tower is presented. The model is developed in Aspen Plus V8.8 and it is validated using historical data from an actual industrial plant. A sensitivity analysis was carried out, followed by optimization using two alternative objective functions: maximization of plant profitability or productivity. The optimization was extended to consider uncertainty in key operating and economic parameters. The results show that changes could be made in the current optimal operating condition of the plant to improve the annual profit of the process.

Extractive Metallurgy Of Copper

Author : Mark E. Schlesinger
ISBN : 9780080967899
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22. 50 MB
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Rev. ed. of: Extractive metallurgy of copper / A.K. Biswas and W.G. Davenport. 1994. 3rd ed.

21st European Symposium On Computer Aided Process Engineering

Author :
ISBN : 9780444538963
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 33 MB
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The European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) series presents the latest innovations and achievements of leading professionals from the industrial and academic communities. The ESCAPE series serves as a forum for engineers, scientists, researchers, managers and students to present and discuss progress being made in the area of computer aided process engineering (CAPE). European industries large and small are bringing innovations into our lives, whether in the form of new technologies to address environmental problems, new products to make our homes more comfortable and energy efficient or new therapies to improve the health and well being of European citizens. Moreover, the European Industry needs to undertake research and technological initiatives in response to humanity's "Grand Challenges," described in the declaration of Lund, namely, Global Warming, Tightening Supplies of Energy, Water and Food, Ageing Societies, Public Health, Pandemics and Security. Thus, the Technical Theme of ESCAPE 21 will be "Process Systems Approaches for Addressing Grand Challenges in Energy, Environment, Health, Bioprocessing & Nanotechnologies."

The Iron Blast Furnace

Author : J. G. Peacey
ISBN : 9781483140872
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 52. 47 MB
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The Iron Blast Furnace: Theory and Practice presents theoretical, experimental, and operational evidence about the iron blast furnace as well as a mathematical description of its operation. This book includes a set of equations that accurately describe stoichiometric and enthalpy balances for the process and which are consistent with observed temperatures and compositions in the furnace stack. These equations, which have been devised on the basis of the Rist approach, show the effects of altering any blast-furnace variable on the other operating requirements of the process. This monograph is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a brief description of the blast-furnace process. The next chapter takes a look inside the furnace, paying particular attention to its behavior in front of the tuyères and the kinetics of the coke gasification reaction. The reader is then introduced to the thermodynamics and stoichiometry of the blast-furnace process; enthalpy balance for the bottom segment of the furnace; the effects of tuyères injectants on blast-furnace operations; and blast-furnace optimization by linear programming. A number of important variables covered by the equations are discussed, including hydrocarbon injection at the tuyères, oxygen enrichment of the blast, moisture, limestone decomposition, coke reactivity, and metalloid reduction. The effects of many of these variables are illustrated numerically in the text while others are demonstrated in sets of problems that follow each chapter. This text will be a valuable resource for metallurgists and materials scientists.

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