stratification in higher education a comparative study studies in social inequality

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Stratification In Higher Education

Author : Yossi Shavit
ISBN : 0804768145
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35. 67 MB
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The mass expansion of higher education is one of the most important social transformations of the second half of the twentieth century. In this book, scholars from 15 countries, representing Western and Eastern Europe, East Asia, Israel, Australia, and the United States, assess the links between this expansion and inequality in the national context. Contrary to most expectations, the authors show that as access to higher education expands, all social classes benefit. Neither greater diversification nor privatization in higher education results in greater inequality. In some cases, especially where the most advantaged already have significant access to higher education, opportunities increase most for persons from disadvantaged origins. Also, during the late twentieth century, opportunities for women increased faster than those for men. Offering a new spin on conventional wisdom, this book shows how all social classes benefit from the expansion of higher education.

Class And Stratification Analysis

Author : Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund
ISBN : 9781781905388
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 70. 5 MB
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Emphasizes unsolved issues and developments within class and stratification analysis, discussing both theoretical and methodological innovations and revisions. In this book, comparative analysis has also revealed cross-national differentiation in stratification processes, partly related to welfare state arrangements and national policies.

Higher Education And Social Inequalities

Author : Richard Waller
ISBN : 9781315449708
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 74. 80 MB
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A university education has long been seen as the gateway to upward social mobility for individuals from lower socio-economic backgrounds, and as a way of reproducing social advantage for the better off. With the number of young people from the very highest socio-economic groups entering university in the UK having effectively been at saturation point for several decades, the expansion witnessed in participation rates over the last few decades has largely been achieved by a modest broadening of the base of the undergraduate population in terms of both social class and ethnic diversity. However, a growing body of evidence exists in the continuation of unequal graduate outcomes. This can be seen in terms of employment trajectories in the UK. The issue of just who enjoys access to which university, and the experiences and outcomes of graduates from different institutions remain central to questions of social justice, notably higher education’s contribution to social mobility and to the reproduction of social inequality. This collection of contemporary original writings explores these issues in a range of specific contexts, and through employing a range of theoretical and methodological approaches. The relationship between higher education and social mobility has probably never been under closer scrutiny. This volume will appeal to academics, policy makers, and commentators alike. Higher Education and Social Inequalities is an important contribution to the public and academic debate.

Education Occupation And Social Origin

Author : Fabrizio Bernardi
ISBN : 9781785360459
Genre : Education
File Size : 69. 24 MB
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Questioning the assumption that education is the ‘great social equalizer’, this book takes a comparative approach to the social origin–education–destination triangle by examining advantage in 14 different countries, including case studies from Europe, Israel, the USA, Russia and Japan. Contributions from leading experts examine the relation between family background, education and occupational achievement over time and across educational levels, focusing on the relationship between individuals’ social origins and their income and occupational outcomes. Providing new theoretical insights, this book eloquently analyzes a variety of barriers to social mobility. Using concepts of compensatory and boosting advantage to explain the intergenerational transmission of social inequality, it refutes the notion of contemporary societies as education-based and meritocratic, showing that in most of the countries studied there is no sign of decreasing intergenerational association, despite the expansion of education. With its multitude of pertinent case studies, Education, Occupation and Social Origin will be of interest to academics and students of social policy as well as those interested in social inequalities and their evolution over time. It will also be a useful reference for governmental policymakers in the wake of the current economic crisis.

International Guide To Student Achievement

Author : John Hattie
ISBN : 9781136962042
Genre : Education
File Size : 67. 59 MB
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The International Guide to Student Achievement brings together and critically examines the major influences shaping student achievement today. There are many, often competing, claims about how to enhance student achievement, raising the questions of "What works?" and "What works best?" World-renowned bestselling authors, John Hattie and Eric M. Anderman have invited an international group of scholars to write brief, empirically-supported articles that examine predictors of academic achievement across a variety of topics and domains. Rather than telling people what to do in their schools and classrooms, this guide simply provides the first-ever compendium of research that summarizes what is known about the major influences shaping students’ academic achievement around the world. Readers can apply this knowledge base to their own school and classroom settings. The 150+ entries serve as intellectual building blocks to creatively mix into new or existing educational arrangements and aim for quick, easy reference. Chapter authors follow a common format that allows readers to more seamlessly compare and contrast information across entries, guiding readers to apply this knowledge to their own classrooms, their curriculums and teaching strategies, and their teacher training programs.

Gender Education And Employment

Author : Hans-Peter Blossfeld
ISBN : 9781784715038
Genre : EDUCATION
File Size : 78. 11 MB
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For much of the twentieth century, women lagged considerably behind men in their educational attainment. However, in recent decades, young women have become an important source of human capital for labor markets in modern societies, as well as potential competitors to the male workforce. This book asks whether or not women have been able to convert their educational success into gains on the labor market. The expert contributors address the topic on a comparative level with discussions centred on gendered school-to-work transitions and gendered labor market outcomes. Thereafter they analyze the country-specific implications of the gender redress from a wide range of countries including the USA, Russia and Australia. This enlightening book will appeal to graduates and postgraduates studying social policy, education, the labor market, inequality and gender. It will also be of interest to experts in the fields of sociology, education, political science and economics and those interested in educational research.

Models Of Secondary Education And Social Inequality

Author : Hans-Peter Blossfeld
ISBN : 9781785367267
Genre :
File Size : 56. 94 MB
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From an international comparative perspective, this third book in the prestigious eduLIFE Lifelong Learning series provides a thorough investigation into how social inequalities arise during individuals’ secondary schooling careers. Paying particular attention to the role of social origin and prior performance, it focuses on tracking and differentiation in secondary schooling examining the short- and long-term effects on inequality of opportunities. It looks at ways in which differentiation in secondary education might produce and reproduce social inequalities in educational opportunities and educational attainment. The international perspective allows illuminating comparison in light of the different models, rules and procedures that regulate admission selection and learning in different countries.

Education And Social Inequality In The Global Culture

Author : Joseph Zajda
ISBN : 1402069278
Genre : Education
File Size : 85. 60 MB
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This book critically examines the overall interplay between globalisation, social inequality and education. It explores conceptual frameworks and methodological approaches applicable in the research covering the State, globalisation, social stratification and education. The book, constructed against this pervasive anti-dialogical backdrop, aims to widen, deepen, and in some cases open, discourse related to globalisation, and new dimensions of social inequality in the global culture.

University Adaptation In Difficult Economic Times

Author : Paola Mattei
ISBN : 9780199989416
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 26. 41 MB
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Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges confronting Europe's universities today. Despite the fact that universities are at the centre of knowledge creation and development, which itself is seen as one of the main engines of economic growth, public funding of higher education in most countries is not increasing or at least not increasing enough in real terms. "Democratisation of higher education" has led to the fact that the higher education budgets per student are relatively low in most European countries compared to Europe's competitors. Despite declarations of intent to increase spending on higher education and research, it is not very likely that public expenditure will grow significantly on average in Europe and therefore be able to keep up with rapidly inflating costs in the years to come. One of the reasons for this is that higher education and research have to compete with other priorities in public budgets (e.g., security, health, etc.). Furthermore, the recent economic downturn has contributed to the decision in many European countries to decrease the levels of investment in higher education and research. Such trends are particularly worrisome for universities across Europe, whose continuing dependence on public funding puts their future sustainability under pressure. New funding schemes and incentives have been discussed and introduced in many European higher education systems, including competitive funding schemes for research under the name of "excellence" policies. Despite the different national institutional configurations in Europe, higher education systems face similar demands of promoting sustainable funding models, maintaining high academic standards, and equality. Thus, financial sustainability is not an end in itself; it aims to ensure that the public university's goals are reached by guaranteeing that the institution produces sufficient income to enable it to invest in high quality education and produce equitable outcomes. For these reasons, this book analyses funding reforms from a multidimensional approach.

Improving Learning Environments

Author : Richard Arum
ISBN : 9780804781688
Genre : Education
File Size : 67. 67 MB
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Improving Learning Environments provides the first systematic comparative cross-national study of school disciplinary climates. In this volume, leading international social science researchers explore nine national case studies to identify the institutional determinants of variation in school discipline, the possible links between school environments and student achievement, as well as the implications of these findings for understanding social inequality. As the book demonstrates, a better understanding of school discipline is essential to the formation of effective educational policies. Ultimately, to improve a school's ability to contribute to youth socialization and student internalization of positive social norms and values, any changes in school discipline must not only be responsive to behavior problems but should also work to enhance the legitimacy and moral authority of school actors.

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