state liability in tort a comparative law study

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State Liability In Tort

Author : Duncan Fairgrieve
ISBN : 9780199258055
Genre : Law
File Size : 72. 89 MB
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This book examines financial compensation for wrongs committed by public bodies including medical negligence, educational errors, child abuse by local authority carers, and police misconduct. Recent English cases are analysed and compared with European decisions. Explanation is given of ways of gaining compensation outside the courts, through complaints-procedures, ombudsmen, and statutory schemes.

Vicarious Liability In Tort

Author : Paula Giliker
ISBN : 9781139493079
Genre : Law
File Size : 68. 20 MB
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Vicarious liability is controversial: a principle of strict liability in an area dominated by fault-based liability. By making an innocent party pay compensation for the torts of another, it can also appear unjust. Yet it is a principle found in all Western legal systems, be they civil law or common law. Despite uncertainty as to its justifications, it is accepted as necessary. In our modern global economy, we are unlikely to understand its meaning and rationale through study of one legal system alone. Using her considerable experience as a comparative tort lawyer, Paula Giliker examines the principle of vicarious liability (or, to a civil lawyer, liability for the acts of others) in England and Wales, Australia, Canada, France and Germany, and with reference to legal systems in countries such as the United States, New Zealand and Spain.

English French German Comparative Law

Author : Raymond Youngs
ISBN : 9781317811701
Genre : Law
File Size : 86. 3 MB
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This comparative analysis considers the differing approaches to important areas of law in England, France and Germany. In particular, constitutions, sources of law, rights against the state to prevent abuse of power, and rights of private individuals and organisations against each other in tort and contract are examined and compared, and the system of courts is also considered. Updated and revised, each sub-topic is introduced with the relevant material in the English system, allowing easy comparison and assimilation of the other systems. The text includes translations of relevant French and German codal material, and references to relevant cases from all of the jurisdictions. This new edition includes constitutional changes in France and the United Kingdom, in particular the new procedure for challenging existing legislation before the Conseil constitutionnel. It examines the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, as well as other recent codal and legislative changes. Comprehensive and topical, the text explores a wide variety of new case law on issues such as: preventive detention; the use of evidence obtained by torture; the balance between suppression of terrorism and personal freedom; the internet; email monitoring; artificial reproductive techniques; use of global positioning systems (GPSs), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and closed-circuit television (CCTV); the wearing of religious clothing (such as the headscarf) and symbols (such as the cross); circumcision; methods of crowd control; the prevention of human trafficking; the preservation of privacy, especially for celebrities; and the legality of pre-nuptial agreements and success fees for lawyers. Designed for students on comparative law courses, this textbook will also prove valuable to students who are familiar with English law, but require a readily comprehensible introduction to French or German law.

State Liability In Investment Treaty Arbitration

Author : Santiago Montt
ISBN : 9781847315489
Genre : Law
File Size : 85. 71 MB
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Today there are more than 2,500 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) around the world. Most of these investment protection treaties offer foreign investors a direct cause of action to claim damages against host-states before international arbitral tribunals. This procedure, together with the requirement of compensation in indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment standard, have transformed the way we think about state liability in international law. We live in the BIT generation, a world where BITs define the scope and conditions according to which states are economically accountable for the consequences of regulatory change and administrative action. Investment arbitration in the BIT generation carries new functions which pose unprecedented normative challenges, such as the arbitral bodies established to resolve investor/state disputes defining the relationship between property rights and the public interest. They also review state action for arbitrariness, and define the proper tests under which that review should proceed. State Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration is an interdisciplinary work, aimed at academics and practitioners, which focuses on five key dimensions of BIT arbitration. First, it analyses the past practice of state responsibility for injuries to aliens, placing the BIT generation in historical perspective. Second, it develops a descriptive law-and-economics model that explains the proliferation of BITs, and why they are all worded so similarly. Third, it addresses the legitimacy deficits of this new form of dispute settlement, weighing its potential advantages and democratic shortfalls. Fourth, it gives a comparative overview of the universal tension between property rights and the public interest, and the problems and challenges associated with liability grounded in illegal and arbitrary state action. Finally, it presents a detailed legal study of the current state of BIT jurisprudence regarding indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment clause.

Public Liability In Eu Law

Author : Pekka Aalto
ISBN : 9781847318459
Genre : Law
File Size : 69. 32 MB
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Over the last two decades public law liability for breach of European Union law has been subject to remarkable developments. This book examines the convergence between its two constituent systems: the damages liability of the EU and that of its Member States for failing to comply with EU rules. Member State liability, based as it is on the Francovich case (1991) and Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame (1996) judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is well established. But it is yet to be closely scrutinised by reference to the detailed rules on the liability of the European Union. The focus of the book is on the two key legal criteria that are common to both systems, namely the grant of rights to individuals by EU law and the notion of sufficiently serious breach of such rights. The analysis concentrates on developments in the case law of the ECJ and the General Court since the Bergaderm judgment (2000), which consolidated the convergence of the two liability systems that was first indicated in Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame. These two criteria are set side by side to evaluate the extent, in real terms, of the convergence of Member State and EU institutional damages liability, and to determine the extent to which one has influenced the other. This book shows that although full convergence between the two liability systems is not likely, each stream of case law should look to the other more actively as this important element of EU remedial law develops. Convergence in EU law public liability is supported by developments in adjacent areas, most notably European tort law and European administrative law. This study also illustrates how convergence in the EU liability systems to date has had spill-over effects into national public liability law.

Methods Of Comparative Law

Author : P. G. Monateri
ISBN : 9781781005118
Genre : Law
File Size : 46. 88 MB
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Comprising an array of distinguished contributors, this pioneering volume of original contributions explores theoretical and empirical issues in comparative law. The innovative, interpretive approach found here combines explorative scholarship and research with thoughtful, qualitative critiques of the field. The book promotes a deeper appreciation of classical theories and offers new ways to re-orient the study of legal transplants and transnational codes. Methods of Comparative Law brings to bear new thinking on topics including: the mutual relationship between space and law; the plot that structures legal narratives, identities and judicial interpretations; a strategic approach to legal decision making; and the inner potentialities of the 'comparative law and economics' approach to the field. Together, the contributors reassess the scientific understanding of comparative methodologies in the field of law in order to provide both critical insights into the traditional literature and an original overview of the most recent and purposive trends. A welcome addition to the lively field of comparative law, Methods of Comparative Law will appeal to students and scholars of law, comparative law and economics. Judges and practitioners will also find much of interest here.

Product Liability In Comparative Perspective

Author : Duncan Fairgrieve
ISBN : 113944803X
Genre : Law
File Size : 74. 58 MB
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This book examines the law of product liability from a comparative perspective. With the European Directive on Product Liability enacted over 20 years ago, this publication analyses the state of product liability in a number of key jurisdictions including both Western European countries and New Member States. Account is also taken of developments further afield, including the United States and Japan. Distinguished contributors, including a high court judge, European Commission official, leading litigators and academics, provide individual country reports and a number of integrated comparative studies. The book is designed for practical use by legal practitioners, academics, students and others interested in the area of contract, tort, civil procedure and multi-party litigation. In particular, practitioners will find the country reports an essential reference point.

Research Handbook On Eu Tort Law

Author : Paula Giliker
ISBN : 9781785365720
Genre :
File Size : 86. 27 MB
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The Research Handbook on EU Tort Law focuses on the study of the law of tort/delict/non-contractual liability of the European Union and examines the institutional liability of the EU, Francovich liability, and liability arising from a variety of EU secondary legislation (directives/regulations). The impact of EU tort law on national legal systems is wide-ranging, covering areas such as consumer law, competition law, data protection law, employment law, insurance law and financial services law. It also discusses the potential development of a European culture of tort law and harmonisation. This comprehensive Research Handbook contains contributions from leading authors in their field, representing a cross-section of European jurisdictions. It offers an authoritative reference point for academics, students and practitioners studying or working in this field, but one which is also accessible for those approaching the subject for the first time.

European Tort Law

Author : Cees van Dam
ISBN : 9780191652448
Genre : Law
File Size : 56. 28 MB
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The new edition of European Tort Law provides an extensive revision and update of the only English language handbook in this constantly evolving area. The coverage in the new edition has been expanded with material on the latest developments in legislation, legal literature, and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the highest courts in France, Germany, and England. The first part of the book, Systems of Liability, provides chapters on the state of tort law in France, Germany, and England, and the European Union. A concluding chapter gives an overall view of the European field, linking the variety of rules with cultural diversity, examining the consequences for European harmonization, and emphasizing the importance of a European policy discourse. The second part, Requirements for Liability, analyses and compares the classic requirements for liability in a comparative and supranational perspective: rights and protected interests, intention and negligence, breach of statutory duty, stricter rules of liability, causation, damage, damages, and contributory negligence. It also discusses the role of tort law in protecting human rights against violations by the state and by multinational corporations. The final part, Categories of Liability, assesses how national and supranational rules are applied in a number of categories, such as in liability for motor vehicles, defective products, and defective premises, in liability for children, employees, and subsidiaries, as well as in cases of nuisance, environmental liability, and liability of public bodies.

Risk Perception Culture And Legal Change

Author : Matteo Ferrari
ISBN : 9781317062790
Genre : Law
File Size : 26. 40 MB
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This study explores the reasons behind the different responses of the legal systems of Europe, Japan and the USA in coping with BSE, one of the major food safety crises in recent years. Making reference to the most recent advances on risk perception that cognitive and social sciences, such as legal anthropology and sociology of law, have experimented with, Risk Perception, Culture, and Legal Change examines the role that culture plays in moulding the process of legal change. Attention is focused on the regulative frameworks implemented to guarantee the safety of the food chain against the BSE menace and on the liability responses sketched to compensate the victims of mad cow disease, showing how both these elements have been influenced by the cultural context within which they are situated.

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