species of mind

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Species Of Mind

Author : Colin Allen
ISBN : 0262511088
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 70. 71 MB
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Colin Allen (a philosopher) and Marc Bekoff (a cognitive ethologist) approach their work from a perspective that considers arguments about evolutionary continuity to be as applicable to the study of animal minds and brains as they are to comparative studies of kidneys, stomachs, and hearts. Cognitive ethologists study the comparative, evolutionary, and ecological aspects of the mental phenomena of animals. Philosophy can provide cognitive ethology with an analytical basis for attributing cognition to nonhuman animals and for studying it, and cognitive ethology can help philosophy to explain mentality in naturalistic terms by providing data on the evolution of cognition. The heart of Allen and Bekoff's book is this reciprocal relationship between philosophical theories of mind and empirical studies of animal cognition. The interdisciplinary approach reveals flaws in common objections to the view that animals have minds.

Treatise On The Human Mind 1666

Author : Louis de la Forge
ISBN : 9789401735902
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 89. 54 MB
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Descartes' philosophy represented one of the most explicit statements of mind-body dualism in the history of philosophy. Its most familiar expression is found in the Meditations (1641) and in Part I of The Principles 0/ Philosophy (1644). However neither of these books provided a detailed discussion of dualism. The Meditations was primarily concerned with finding a foundation for reliable human knowledge, while the Principles attempted to provide an alternative metaphysical framework, in contrast with scholastic philosophy, within which natural philosophy or a scien tific explanation of natural phenomena could be developed. Thus neither book ex plicitly presents a Cartesian theory of the mind nor does either give a detailed account of how, if dualism were accepted, mind and body would interact. The task of articulating such a theory was left to two further works, only one of which was completed by Descartes, viz. the Treatise on Man (published posthumously in 1664). The Treatise began with the following sentence, describing the hypothetical human beings who were to be explained in that work: 'These human beings will be com posed, as we are, of a soul and a body; and, first of all, I must describe the body for you separately; then, also separately, the soul; and fmally I must show you how these two natures would have to be joined and united to constitute human beings resembling us.

What Technology Wants

Author : Kevin Kelly
ISBN : 1101444460
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 57 MB
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From the author of the New York Times bestseller The Inevitable— a sweeping vision oftechnology as a living force that can expand our individual potential This provocative book introduces a brand-new view of technology. It suggests that technology as a whole is not a jumble of wires and metal but a living, evolving organism that has its own unconscious needs and tendencies. Kevin Kelly looks out through the eyes of this global technological system to discover "what it wants." He uses vivid examples from the past to trace technology's long course and then follows a dozen trajectories of technology into the near future to project where technology is headed. This new theory of technology offers three practical lessons: By listening to what technology wants we can better prepare ourselves and our children for the inevitable technologies to come. By adopting the principles of pro-action and engagement, we can steer technologies into their best roles. And by aligning ourselves with the long-term imperatives of this near-living system, we can capture its full gifts. Written in intelligent and accessible language, this is a fascinating, innovative, and optimistic look at how humanity and technology join to produce increasing opportunities in the world and how technology can give our lives greater meaning. From the Hardcover edition.

The Symbolic Species The Co Evolution Of Language And The Brain

Author : Terrence W. Deacon
ISBN : 9780393343021
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 54 MB
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"A work of enormous breadth, likely to pleasantly surprise both general readers and experts."—New York Times Book Review This revolutionary book provides fresh answers to long-standing questions of human origins and consciousness. Drawing on his breakthrough research in comparative neuroscience, Terrence Deacon offers a wealth of insights into the significance of symbolic thinking: from the co-evolutionary exchange between language and brains over two million years of hominid evolution to the ethical repercussions that followed man's newfound access to other people's thoughts and emotions. Informing these insights is a new understanding of how Darwinian processes underlie the brain's development and function as well as its evolution. In contrast to much contemporary neuroscience that treats the brain as no more or less than a computer, Deacon provides a new clarity of vision into the mechanism of mind. It injects a renewed sense of adventure into the experience of being human.

The Politics Of Species

Author : Raymond Corbey
ISBN : 9781107032606
Genre : Nature
File Size : 34. 3 MB
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Experts from a range of disciplines identify the key barriers to a definition of moral respect that includes nonhuman animals.

Philosophy Of Mind

Author : William Jaworski
ISBN : 1444397583
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 33. 62 MB
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Philosophy of Mind introduces readers to one of the liveliest fields in contemporary philosophy by discussing mind-body problems and the various solutions to them. It provides a detailed yet balanced overview of the entire field that enables readers to jump immediately into current debates. Treats a wide range of mind-body theories and arguments in a fair and balanced way Shows how developments in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and cognitive science have impacted mind-body debates Premise-by-premise arguments for and against each position enable readers to grasp the structure of each argument quickly and easily Diagrams and illustrations help readers absorb the more complex ideas Bibliographic essays at the end of each chapter bring readers up to date on the latest literature Written in a clear, easy to read style that is free of technical jargon, and highly accessible to a broad readership The only book to explain systematically how a hylomorphic theory such as Aristotle’s can contribute to current mind-body debates and vie with current mind-body theories Online chapters on free will and the philosophy of persons make the book a flexible teaching tool for general and introductory philosophy courses - available at www.wiley.com/go/jaworski

Brain Body Mind In The Nebulous Cartesian System A Holistic Approach By Oscillations

Author : Erol Başar
ISBN : 1441961364
Genre : Medical
File Size : 56. 66 MB
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Brain-Body-Mind in the Nebulous Cartesian System: A Holistic Approach by Oscillations is a research monograph, with didactical features, on the mechanisms of the mind, encompassing a wide spectrum of results and analyses. The book should appeal to scientists and graduate students in the fields of neuroscience, neurology, psychiatry, physiology, psychology, physics and philosophy. Its goals are the development of an empirical-analytical construct, denoted as “Reasonings to Approach the Mind”, and the comprehension of 20 principles for understanding the mind. This book amalgamates results from work on the brain, vegetative system, brains in the evolution of species, the maturing brain, dynamic memory, emotional processes, and cognitive impairment in neuro-psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorders). The findings are comparatively evaluated within the framework of brain oscillations and neurotransmitters. Further, a holistic approach links the brain to the cardiovascular system and overall myogenic coordination of the vegetative system. The results emphasize that EEG oscillations, ultraslow oscillations, and neurotransmitters are quasi-invariant building blocks in brain-body-mind function and also during the evolution of species: The temporal domain is where the importance of research on neural oscillators is indispensable. The core, holistic concept that emerges is that the brain, spinal cord, overall myogenic system, brain-body-oscillations, and neurotransmitters form a functional syncytium. Accordingly, the concept of “Syncytium Brain-Body-Mind” replaces the concept of “Mind”. P>

A Mind Of Her Own

Author : Anne Campbell
ISBN : 9780191647024
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 50. 40 MB
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When Darwin proposed that females shape evolution by being choosy in their choice of male suitors, his Victorian contemporaries were shocked that he accorded so much importance to women. But this early view of the female role was far from revolutionary: They were simply allowed to be passive 'quality controllers' of male genes. Recent years have shown that the inert 'coy female' is a myth. For a male, a high sex drive and a taste for variety may improve his fitness. But for a female, successful reproduction goes far beyond copulation. She bears the brunt of parental investment with each child represents years of commitment from pregnancy and breast-feeding to provisioning and guarding. For her genetic lineage to survive, she must do this better than her rivals. Each of us comes from a line of winning mothers. Women are, after all, the first and default sex. It is women who bear children. A child born with a single X chromosome can survive, but not one with a single Y. In a population crash, a female-biased population will survive far better than a male-heavy one. In this book, Anne Campbell redresses the balance of evolutionary theory in favour of women. She examines how selection pressures have shaped the female mind over thousands of generations: Their emotions, friendship, competition, aggression and mate choice. She brings together data from neuroscience, endocrinology, anthropology, primatology as well as psychology to address fundamental questions about sex differences.... Why are women less aggressive than men? Were women designed for monogamy or promiscuity? What do women compete for? Why is conflict between males and females inevitable? What makes each woman unique? Have contraception and IVF subverted the process of natural selection?

Body Language And Mind Sociocultural Situatedness

Author : Roslyn M. Frank
ISBN : 3110196182
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 37. 15 MB
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The papers in this volume introduce and elaborate upon the concept of sociocultural situatedness, understood broadly as the way in which minds and cognitive processes are shaped, both individually and collectively, by their interaction with culturally contextualized structures and practices; and, furthermore, how these structures interact, contextually, with language and can become embodied in it.

The Animal Mind

Author : Kristin Andrews
ISBN : 9781317676768
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 67. 40 MB
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The study of animal cognition raises profound questions about the minds of animals and philosophy of mind itself. Aristotle argued that humans are the only animal to laugh, but in recent experiments rats have also been shown to laugh. In other experiments, dogs have been shown to respond appropriately to over two hundred words in human language. In this introduction to the philosophy of animal minds Kristin Andrews introduces and assesses the essential topics, problems and debates as they cut across animal cognition and philosophy of mind. She addresses the following key topics: what is cognition, and what is it to have a mind? What questions should we ask to determine whether behaviour has a cognitive basis? the science of animal minds explained: ethology, behaviourist psychology, and cognitive ethology rationality in animals animal consciousness: what does research into pain and the emotions reveal? What can empirical evidence about animal behaviour tell us about philosophical theories of consciousness? does animal cognition involve belief and concepts; do animals have a ‘Language of Thought’? animal communication other minds: do animals attribute ‘mindedness’ to other creatures? moral reasoning and ethical behaviour in animals animal cognition and memory. Extensive use of empirical examples and case studies is made throughout the book. These include Cheney and Seyfarth’s ververt monkey research, Thorndike’s cat puzzle boxes, Jensen’s research into humans and chimpanzees and the ultimatum game, Pankseep and Burgdorf’s research on rat laughter, and Clayton and Emery’s research on memory in scrub-jays. Additional features such as chapter summaries, annotated further reading and a glossary make this an indispensable introduction to those teaching philosophy of mind, animal cognition. It will also be an excellent resource for those in fields such as ethology, biology and psychology.

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