spain s photovoltaic revolution the energy return on investment springerbriefs in energy

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Spain S Photovoltaic Revolution

Author : Pedro A. Prieto
ISBN : 9781441994370
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 10 MB
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI

Energy Return On Investment

Author : Charles A.S. Hall
ISBN : 9783319478210
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30. 37 MB
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This authoritative but highly accessible book presents the reader with a powerful framework for understanding the critical role of the energy return on investment (EROI) in the survival and well-being of individuals, ecosystems, businesses, economies and nations. Growth and development are fundamental and ubiquitous processes at all scales, from individuals to food crops to national economies. While we are all familiar with the concepts of economic growth and living standards as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), we often take for granted the energy use that underpins GDP and our expectations for year-on-year growth. In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains. Nothing is made or moved without an energy surplus, and it is the EROI of available energy sources more than any other single factor that determines the shape of civilization. Nearly all politics and economics assume that policy and market forces are the levers upon which future outcomes will hinge. However, this book presents many examples of historical and current events that can be explained much more clearly from an energetic perspective. In addition, a future scenario is developed that gives a central place to EROI in assessing the potential of governmental and private initiatives to substitute so-called renewable energy sources for diminishing stocks of fossil fuels. When cheap fossil fuels are no longer available in the abundance needed to mask economic problems and power business as usual, it will be EROI more than the plethora of “green” technologies that creates the boundary conditions for a sustainable future.

Energy In Agroecosystems

Author : Gloria I. Guzman Casado
ISBN : 9781315349909
Genre : Nature
File Size : 48. 13 MB
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Energy in Agroecosystems: A Tool for Assessing Sustainability is the first book on energy analysis that is up-to-date and specifically dedicated to agriculture. It is written from an agroecological perspective and goes beyond the conventional analysis of the efficient use of energy. The book provide a methodological guide to assess energy efficiency and sustainability from an eco-energetic point of view. Case studies from both Europe and America, which are representative of today’s most used scales of analysis (crop, farm, local or national) and the different farm management practices (traditional, industrialized, and contemporary organic), apply this methodology This book will be of primary interest to researchers, practitioners, and students working in the areas of agroecology, sustainable agriculture, environmental science, energy analysis, natural resources management, rural development and international development.

Energy In Australia

Author : Graham Palmer
ISBN : 9783319029405
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 40 MB
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With rapidly declining costs and seemingly unlimited sunshine, the choice of solar in Australia seems obvious. Yet despite its many advantages, homes with solar remain completely dependent on the electricity grid for reliable supply, which in Australia implies mostly coal-fired generation. Indeed, even countries that have invested heavily in solar, such as Spain and Germany, have been unable to deflect the trajectory of fossil fuel dependence. The reasons for this apparent paradox are varied, and this book provides a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the practical applications of photovoltaics (PV) in modern electricity systems. While the conventional life-cycle assessment (LCA) boundaries as prescribed by the IEA-PVPS provide a consistent methodology for comparing evolving PV technologies, the narrow boundaries exclude many critical downstream energy costs. Similarly, simple cost comparisons of PV versus conventional power sources overlook the significant economic and energy costs of intermittency and grid integration. Yet distributed storage, which could provide potentially valuable network support, is frequently given a low priority by advocates of solar. Treating PV as an extension of, rather than as a substitute for, the fossil fuel enterprise enables a more productive discussion of PV’s potential role in electricity generation. The sunburnt country of Australia, which has a modern electricity system, is an ideal case study for exploring the potential of solar PV. With a focus on rooftop solar, energy storage, grid integration, and electricity system issues, Energy in Australia offers valuable insights into the practical challenges of solar power. Although many national economies are already confronting a downward trend in energy return on investment (EROI) of oil and gas from both conventional and unconventional sources, the large-scale deployment of low-emission energy sources that lie below a critical minimum EROI threshold may ultimately prove counter-productive.

Renewable Energy Problems And Prospects In Coachella Valley California

Author : James B. Pick
ISBN : 9783319515267
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 97 MB
Format : PDF
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The book analyzes the problems and potential of renewable energy development for the Coachella Valley of California and provides a useful case study for renewable energy feasibility assessments for other areas. A conceptual model, Integrated Policy Assessment Theory for Renewable Energy, is given and justified for renewable energy development in the Valley. Further, Central Place Theory, well known in urban geography, is discussed and it is seen to be very relevant to the understanding the Coachella Valley’s city sizes and renewable energy markets, compared to the greater Los Angeles region. The book’s research methods include geospatial mapping and analysis and interviews leaders in small innovative firms, government agencies, and nonprofits. The many findings of the book include evaluation of how the Valley’s socioeconomic and transportation features influence renewable energy development, the scope of markets for solar and wind energy in the Valley, spatial confluences of renewable energy facilities with other features, and the future potential of ground-source heat pumps. Benchmark comparison of the Coachella Valley is done with two leading wind and solar regions elsewhere in the country, to assess the Valley’s evolution and opportunities in renewable energy. The book concludes by evaluating the prospects and problems for the growth of renewable entrepreneurship, manufacturing, assembly, and operations in Coachella Valley. This leads to policy recommendations grounded in the book’s research findings, which are intended for use by governments, businesses, and nonprofits. The hope is that many of the developmental experiences from the Coachella Valley will be helpful not only within the Valley but to other communities nationwide and worldwide.

Advances In Health And Environment Safety

Author : N. A. Siddiqui
ISBN : 9789811071225
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 50. 30 MB
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This book comprises selected papers on advances in the field of health and environment safety that were presented at the leading international conference on advances in the field of health, safety, fire, environment, allied sciences and engineering (HSFEA 2016). The book focuses on the latest developments in the field of health and environment safety, and highlights related opportunities and challenges. The book also presents methods that can be used to effectively monitor and measure climate change and global warming. Further, the contents of this work stress the importance of maintaining safety and healthy work environments that are free of occupational health hazards. This book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.

When Trucks Stop Running

Author : Alice J. Friedemann
ISBN : 9783319263755
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72. 99 MB
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In lively and engaging language, this book describes our dependence on freight transport and its vulnerability to diminishing supplies and high prices of oil. Ships, trucks, and trains are the backbone of civilization, hauling the goods that fulfill our every need and desire. Their powerful, highly-efficient diesel combustion engines are exquisitely fine-tuned to burn petroleum-based diesel fuel. These engines and the fuels that fire them have been among the most transformative yet disruptive technologies on the planet. Although this transportation revolution has allowed many of us to fill our homes with global goods even a past emperor would envy, our era of abundance, and the freight transport system in particular, is predicated on the affordability and high energy density of a single fuel, oil. This book explores alternatives to this finite resource including other liquid fuels, truck and locomotive batteries and utility-scale energy storage technology, and various forms of renewable electricity to support electrified transport. Transportation also must adapt to other challenges: Threats from climate change, financial busts, supply-chain failure, and transportation infrastructure decay. Robert Hirsch, who wrote the “Peaking of World Oil Production” report for the U.S. Department of Energy in 2005, said that planning for peak world production must start at least 10, if not 20 years ahead of time. What little planning exists focuses mainly on how to accommodate 30 percent more economic growth while averting climate change, ignoring the possibility that we are at, or near, the end of growth. Taken for granted, the modern transportation system will not endure forever. The time is now to take a realistic and critical look at the choices ahead, and how the future of transportation may unfold.

Solar Power In Building Design Greensource

Author : Peter Gevorkian
ISBN : 9780071594448
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 65. 8 MB
Format : PDF
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Design, Implement, and Audit the Most Energy-Efficient, Cost-Effective Solar Power Systems for Any Type of Building! Solar Power in Building Design is a complete guide to designing, implementing, and auditing energy-efficient, cost-effective solar power systems for residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. From basic theory through project planning, cost estimating, and manufacturing methods, this vital resource offers you everything needed for solar power design success. Filled with case studies and illustrations, this state-of-the-art design tool covers new solar technologies...design implementation techniques...energy conservation...the economics of solar power systems...passive solar heating power...and more. Solar Power in Building Design features: Step-by-step instructions for designing, implementing, and auditing solar power systems Expert guidance on using solar power in any type of building-from basic theory through project planning, cost estimating, and manufacturing Complete details on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), plus rebate procedures and forms Inside This Cutting-Edge Solar Power Toolkit • Solar power physics and technology • Practical guide to solar power design • Solar power design implementation • Energy conservation • Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) • Sustainable energy rebate • Economics of solar power systems • Passive solar heating power

Materials That Change Color

Author : Marinella Ferrara
ISBN : 9783319002903
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 69. 51 MB
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This book presents a design-driven investigation into smart materials developed by chemists, physicists, materials and chemical engineers, and applied by designers to consumer products. Introducing a class of smart materials, that change colors, the book presents their characteristics, advantages, potentialities and difficulties of applications of this to help understanding what they are, how they work, how they are applied. The books also present a number of case studies: products, projects, concepts and experiments using smart materials, thus mapping out new design territories for these innovative materials. These case studies involve different fields of design, including product, interior, fashion and communication design. Within the context of rising sustainable and human-centered design agendas, the series will demonstrate the role and influence of these new materials and technologies on design, and discuss how they can implement and redefine our objects and spaces to encourage more resilient environments.

French Brazilian Geography

Author : José Borzacchiello da Silva
ISBN : 9783319310237
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 25. 80 MB
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This book analyses the development of geography as a scientific discipline in Brazil, highlighting how the established partnerships with French geographers have helped shape scientific progress in the country. It connects economic development and politics with the study of geography in Brazil. The author, José Borzacchiello da Silva, includes interviews with renowned French geographers, documenting their insight into the French contribution to geography in Brazil. The research partnerships established have been significant to the foundation and growth of the discipline in the country.

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