simple heuristics that make us smart evolution and cognition series

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Adaptive Thinking

Author : Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN : 9780190286767
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 49. 7 MB
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Where do new ideas come from? What is social intelligence? Why do social scientists perform mindless statistical rituals? This vital book is about rethinking rationality as adaptive thinking: to understand how minds cope with their environments, both ecological and social. Gerd Gigerenzer proposes and illustrates a bold new research program that investigates the psychology of rationality, introducing the concepts of ecological, bounded, and social rationality. His path-breaking collection takes research on thinking, social intelligence, creativity, and decision-making out of an ethereal world where the laws of logic and probability reign, and places it into our real world of human behavior and interaction. Adaptive Thinking is accessibly written for general readers with an interest in psychology, cognitive science, economics, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, and animal behavior. It also teaches a practical audience, such as physicians, AIDS counselors, and experts in criminal law, how to understand and communicate uncertainties and risks.

Unternehmenssteuerung Durch Den Finanzvorstand Cfo

Author : Matthias J. Rapp
ISBN : 9783658041045
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 65. 34 MB
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In der Unternehmenspraxis lässt sich beobachten, dass es immer häufiger der CFO ist, der einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Wertsteigerung ausübt. Aus dem gewandelten Rollenverständnis und der zunehmenden Bedeutung des CFOs resultiert, dass auch in der CEO-Nachfolge inzwischen immer mehr CFOs berücksichtigt werden. Daraus ergibt sich ein neues Rollenverständnis, das in diesem Buch konkretisiert wird. Matthias J. Rapp und Axel Wullenkord arbeiten mit hohem Praxisbezug die zentralen Funktionen und Aufgaben des CFOs heraus.

Unternehmenssteuerung Durch Den Finanzvorstand Cfo

Author : Matthias Rapp
ISBN : 9783834965288
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 47. 17 MB
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Die Aufgaben des Finanzvorstandes werden immer umfangreicher. Erstmals im deutschsprachigen Raum bietet Ihnen das vorliegende Buch anhand konkreter Problemstellungen erfolgserprobte Lösungsansätze aus den verschiedenen Teildisziplinen und den damit verbundenen Aufgabenspektren eines Chief Financial Officers. Ob Controlling, Treasury, Risikomanagement und vieles mehr: mit Praxisbeispielen und der außerordentlich anschaulichen Darstellung zeigen die Autoren dem Leser die notwendigen Wege aus seinem eigenen Dilemma als geschäftsführend Verantwortlichen.

Simple Heuristics In A Social World

Author : Ralph Hertwig
ISBN : 9780199729241
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 85. 68 MB
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Simple Heuristics in a Social World invites readers to discover the simple heuristics that people use to navigate the complexities and surprises of environments populated with others. The social world is a terrain where humans and other animals compete with conspecifics for myriad resources, including food, mates, and status, and where rivals grant the decision maker little time for deep thought, protracted information search, or complex calculations. Yet, the social world also encompasses domains where social animals such as humans can learn from one another and can forge alliances with one another to boost their chances of success. According to the book's thesis, the undeniable complexity of the social world does not dictate cognitive complexity as many scholars of rationality argue. Rather, it entails circumstances that render optimization impossible or computationally arduous: intractability, the existence of incommensurable considerations, and competing goals. With optimization beyond reach, less can be more. That is, heuristics--simple strategies for making decisions when time is pressing and careful deliberation an unaffordable luxury--become indispensible mental tools. As accurate as or even more accurate than complex methods when used in the appropriate social environments, these heuristics are good descriptive models of how people make many decisions and inferences, but their impressive performance also poses a normative challenge for optimization models. In short, the Homo socialis may prove to be a Homo heuristicus whose intelligence reflects ecological rather than logical rationality.

Rationalit T Im Prozess Kultureller Evolution

Author : Hansjörg Siegenthaler
ISBN : 316148519X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 21. 80 MB
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Conference proceedings, 1998-99, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin.

Rationality For Mortals

Author : Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN : 9780199890125
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 20. 94 MB
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Gerd Gigerenzer's influential work examines the rationality of individuals not from the perspective of logic or probability, but from the point of view of adaptation to the real world of human behavior and interaction with the environment. Seen from this perspective, human behavior is more rational than it might otherwise appear. This work is extremely influential and has spawned an entire research program. This volume (which follows on a previous collection, Adaptive Thinking, also published by OUP) collects his most recent articles, looking at how people use "fast and frugal heuristics" to calculate probability and risk and make decisions. It includes a newly writen, substantial introduction, and the articles have been revised and updated where appropriate. This volume should appeal, like the earlier volumes, to a broad mixture of cognitive psychologists, philosophers, economists, and others who study decision making.

Risiko

Author : Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN : 9783641119904
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 34. 28 MB
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Der neue Bestseller von Gerd Gigerenzer Erinnern wir uns an die weltweite Angst vor der Schweinegrippe, als Experten eine nie dagewesene Pandemie prognostizierten und Impfstoff für Millionen produziert wurde, der später still und heimlich entsorgt werden musste. Für Gerd Gigerenzer ist dies nur ein Beleg unseres irrationalen Umgangs mit Risiken. Und das gilt für Experten ebenso wie für Laien. An Beispielen aus Medizin, Rechtswesen und Finanzwelt erläutert er, wie die Psychologie des Risikos funktioniert, was sie mit unseren entwicklungsgeschichtlich alten Hirnstrukturen zu tun hat und welche Gefahren damit einhergehen. Dabei analysiert er die ungute Rolle von irreführenden Informationen, die von Medien und Fachleuten verbreitet werden. Doch Risiken und Ungewissheiten richtig einzuschätzen kann und sollte jeder lernen. Diese Risikoschulung erprobt Gigerenzer seit vielen Jahren mit verblüffenden Ergebnissen. Sein Fazit: Schon Kinder können lernen, mit Risiken realistisch umzugehen und sich gegen Panikmache wie Verharmlosung zu immunisieren.

Adaptive Thinking

Author : Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN : 9780195153729
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 68. 77 MB
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Where do new ideas come from? What is social intelligence? Why do social scientists perform mindless statistical rituals? Most importantly, what counts as adaptive thinking as our minds try to cope with the world around us?

Evolution And The Psychology Of Thinking

Author : David E. Over
ISBN : 9781135426316
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 87. 72 MB
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The field of evolutionary cognitive psychology has stimulated considerable interest and debate among cognitive psychologists and those working in related areas. In this collection, leading experts evaluate the status of this new field, providing a critical analysis of its most controversial hypotheses. These hypotheses have far reaching implications for cognition, including a modular view of the mind, which rejects, in its extreme form, any general learning or reasoning abilities. Some evolutionary psychologists have also proposed content-dependent accounts of conditional reasoning and probability judgements, which in turn have significant, and equally controversial, implications about the nature of human reasoning and decision making. The contributions range from those that are highly critical of the hypotheses to those that support and develop them. The result is a uniquely balanced, cutting-edge evaluation of the field that will be of interest to psychologists, philosophers and those in related subjects who wish to find out what evolutionary considerations can, and cannot, tell us about the human mind.

Scientific Approaches To The Philosophy Of Religion

Author : Y. Nagasawa
ISBN : 9781137026019
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 36. 80 MB
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Tackling central problems in philosophy of religion by referring to relevant theories and findings in cognitive science, anthropology, developmental psychology, decision theory, biology, physics, cosmology, the contributors address a range of topics, including divine attributes; God, creation and evolution; God and the universe; religious beliefs.

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