quantitative ultrasound in soft tissues

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Quantitative Ultrasound In Soft Tissues

Author : Jonathan Mamou
ISBN : 9789400769526
Genre : Medical
File Size : 64. 63 MB
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Due to parallel advances in signal processing and computer hardware in the last 15 years, quantitative ultrasound techniques have reached maturity, allowing for the construction of quantitative maps or images of soft tissues. This book will focus on 5 modern research topics related to quantitative ultrasound of soft tissues: - Spectral-based methods for tissue characterization, tissue typing, cancer detection, etc.; - Envelope statistics analysis as a means of quantifying and imaging tissue properties; - Ultrasound elastography for quantifying elastic properties of tissues (several clinical ultrasound scanners now display elastography images); - Scanning acoustic microscopy for forming images of mechanical properties of soft tissues with micron resolution (desktop size scanners are now available); and - Ultrasound computer tomography for breast cancer imaging (new ultrasound tomography systems have been developed and are currently under evaluation clinically).

Bone Quantitative Ultrasound

Author : Pascal Laugier
ISBN : 9400700172
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 95 MB
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Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of bone is a relatively recent research field. The research community is steadily growing, with interdisciplinary branches in acoustics, medical imaging, biomechanics, biomedical engineering, applied mathematics, bone biology and clinical sciences, resulting in significant achievements in new ultrasound technologies to measure bone, as well as models to elucidate the interaction and the propagation of ultrasonic wave in complex bone structures. Hundreds of articles published in specialists journals are accessible from the Web and from electronic libraries. However, no compilation and synthesis of the most recent and significant research exist. The only book on QUS of bone has been published in 1999 at a time when the propagation mechanisms of ultrasound in bone were still largely unknown and the technology was immature. The research community has now reached a critical size, special sessions are organized in major international meetings (e.g., at the World Congress of Biomechanics, the annual meetings of the Acoustical Society of America, International Bone Densitometry Workshop, etc...). Consequently, the time has come for a completely up to date, comprehensive review of the topic. The book will offer the most recent experimental results and theoretical concepts developed so far and is intended for researchers, graduate or undergraduate students, engineers, and clinicians who are involved in the field. The central part of the book covers the physics of ultrasound propagation in bone. Our goal is to give the reader an extensive view of the mathematical and numerical models as an aid to understand the QUS potential and the types of variables that can be determined by QUS in order to characterize bone strength. The propagation of sound in bone is still subject of intensive research. Different models have been proposed (for example, the Biot theory of poroelasticity and the theory of scattering have been used to describe wave propagation in cancellous bone, whereas propagation in cortical bone falls in the scope of guided waves theories). An extensive review of the models has not been published so far. We intend in this book to present in details the models that are used to solve the direct problem and strategies that are currently developed to address the inverse problem. This will include analytical theories and numerical approaches that have grown exponentially in recent years. Most recent experimental findings and technological developments will also be comprehensively reviewed.

Quantitative Ultrasound And Photoacoustic Imaging For The Assessment Of Vascular Parameters

Author : Kristen M. Meiburger
ISBN : 9783319489988
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 90. 22 MB
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This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and summarizing the outcomes of this important research, the book will be of interest to a broad range of researchers and practitioners in the fields of medical imaging and biomedical engineering.

6th World Congress Of Biomechanics Wcb 2010 1 6 August 2010 Singapore

Author : Chwee Teck Lim
ISBN : 3642145159
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 67. 4 MB
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Biomechanics covers a wide field such as organ mechanics, tissue mechanics, cell mechanics to molecular mechanics. At the 6th World Congress of Biomechanics WCB 2010 in Singapore, authors presented the largest experimental studies, technologies and equipment. Special emphasis was placed on state-of-the-art technology and medical applications. This volume presents the Proceedings of the 6th WCB 2010 which was hold in conjunction with 14th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (ICBME) & 5th Asia Pacific Conference on Biomechanics (APBiomech). The peer reviewed scientific papers are arranged in the six themes Organ Mechanics, Tissue Mechanics, Cell Mechanics, Molecular Mechanics, Materials, Tools, Devices & Techniques, Special Topics.

Non Contact Quantitative Imaging Of Limbs Bone And Tissue Using Ultrasound Tomographic Techniques

Author : Jonathan Randall Fincke
ISBN : OCLC:1065536836
Genre :
File Size : 70. 64 MB
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Non-contact and quantitative ultrasound images of bone and soft tissue are produced from original algorithms applied to observational data sets collected on two custom built ultrasound imaging systems for limb imaging. The images are quantitative in that the distribution of sound speeds and dimensionally accurate geometry of tissue structures are reconstructed. The first imaging system is based on laser generation and detection of ultrasound (LUS) and the second is a water immersion ultrasound tomography (UST) system. The LUS and UST systems and algorithms, in aggregate, can be used to generate large volume, quantitative 2D and traditional 2D ultrasound images. Existing medical ultrasound systems are unable to acquire or generate large volume, quantitative and clinically useful bone images. A medical ultrasound system with these capabilities would have significant clinical value. LUS and UST systems could improve the quality, cost and safety of osteoporosis diagnosis and tracking, prosthetic fitting, bone fracture detection and tracking, intraoperative imaging and volumetric imaging in intensive care units. The algorithms and systems established for this thesis contribute broadly to non-contact ultrasound imaging: LUS for medical imaging, and UST for bone and soft tissue imaging and quantification. Non-contact techniques are clinically valuable because they can deliver operator independent image quality and large volume imagery without making contact with the body and distorting the tissue. Quantitative ultrasound imaging techniques are clinically useful because they provide intrinsic information about tissue mechanical properties, such as stiffness and density. Successful bone and soft tissue quantification using UST techniques could yield an entirely new and radiation free means of assessing bone and soft tissue strength and health. The experiments completed with the LUS system demonstrate its capability to generate images without contacting or treating the skin surface. Further, soft tissue (weak reflector), as well as bone (strong reflectors) are resolved at skin safe optical exposures. To enhance the LUS system performance, the optical wavelength of the generation laser is studied and optimized to deliver the largest acoustic source possible while also meeting optical exposure thresholds for skin. Additionally, commercially available laser vibrometer technology optimized for detecting vibrations on rough surfaces, such as skin, is identified and tested. Three original algorithms yield images of bone and soft tissue geometry and sound speed when applied to experimental data from the UST device. The first algorithm is a backscatter/reflection adaptive imaging technique that enables high resolution, SNR and volumetric imagery of bone and soft tissue to be formed from a single, mechanically scanned ultrasound transducer. The second algorithm uses a travel-time sound speed inversion technique that estimates water, soft tissue and bone sound speed to within 10% of ground truth estimates. The performance of this algorithm is validated on multiple samples and a simulated data set. The third algorithm is a full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithm regularized with the level set technique to enable quantification of bone properties. This algorithm is validated on an animal tissue sample and simulated data sets. The FWI technique resolves the soft tissue spatial sound speed distribution with half to one-quarter wavelength (1 - 0.5 mm) resolution and average sound speed values are within 10% of ground truth measurements.

Metabolic Bone Disease And Clinically Related Disorders

Author : Louis V. Avioli
ISBN : 9780080536279
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 98 MB
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Metabolic Bone Disease, Third Edition is the new, expanded edition of the classic text, featuring the latest advancements and research information in this fast-moving field. The Third Edition includes the most up-to-date information on molecular mechanisms, basic biology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis and management strategies of metabolic bone disease. Key Features * Edited by "fathers of the field" * An expanded version of a classic AP text * Complete coverage of a fast-growing field

Neuromuscular Ultrasound E Book

Author : Francis Walker
ISBN : 9781437737769
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65. 20 MB
Format : PDF
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Neuromuscular Ultrasound demonstrates the use of ultrasound as an alternative to electrodiagnosis in the evaluation of neuromuscular disorders through detailed descriptions and clear illustrations. Drs. Francis Walker and Michael S. Cartwright discuss techniques for visualizing muscles and nerves without painful testing for better patient compliance and more efficient diagnosis. Color illustrations, pearls for the clinician, and ultrasound videos online at www.expertconsult.com, ensure that you’ll be able to apply this technology effectively in your practice. Access the fully searchable text online at www.expertconsult.com, along with ultrasound videos that demonstrate ultrasound evaluation in real time. Diagnose and manage your patients more quickly and easily by visualizing muscles and nerves without painful testing. Master the nuances of using ultrasound through the visual instruction of clear images and illustrations. Minimize patient discomfort while maximizing optimal patient evaluation with a practical focus that covers using ultrasound as a screening tool, provides clinical pearls, and includes comparisons to electrodiagnosis. Apply the full range of ultrasound applications, including interventional uses (such as ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin and steroid injections), ultrasound of polyneuropathies (often found in diabetics), and more.

Illustrated Orthopedic Physical Assessment E Book

Author : Ronald C. Evans
ISBN : 9780323062985
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 62 MB
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Logically organized with comprehensive coverage, this newly revised third edition prepares you to choose the right orthopedic tests, accurately assess any patient, and arrive at a clear diagnosis. Trusted for both its depth of coverage and its accessible, accurate information, it features gamuts, clinical pearls, and cross-reference tables for quick and easy reference. Now in brilliant full color, with all new photos of every test, it’s even more visually appealing, and illustrates common conditions and procedural tests more effectively than ever before. This edition offers a fresh look at testing for orthopedic conditions, with detailed text that explains the key moves of each test, its alternate names, and the appropriate reporting statement. Extensive cross-referencing ensures that you can easily find the right test for efficient and effective practice, and protocol charts guide you through the examination process step by step. Chapters are logically organized by region, and tests within each chapter are arranged alphabetically, so you can find the information you need in seconds! Each test begins with a brief discussion of basic anatomy, then moves into a description of the actual procedure and ends with next-step directives. Critical Thinking questions at the end of each chapter help you apply what you’ve learned to clinical practice. Orthopedic Gamuts provide summaries of key points in a concise list – numerous gamuts within each chapter help you master material quickly and easily. Clinical Pearls share the author’s knowledge gained through years of clinical experience, helping you avoid common misdiagnoses. Cross-reference tables offer at-a-glance guidance on which tests should be used to diagnose particular diseases, for maximum accuracy and efficiency in practice. Each chapter begins with an index of tests for easy reference, and axioms that remind you of elemental information, such as how painful certain maneuvers may be or the extent of some body parts’ range. Contains a chapter on malingering (non-organically-based complaints), helping you investigate and determine the root cause of complaint, whether due to injury, for psychological reasons, or an attempt to feign injury for various purposes, such as for improper receipt of worker’s compensation. Companion DVD contains video footage of Dr. Evans performing and explaining each assessment test in the book. Full-color photographs demonstrate how to perform 237 orthopedic tests! At the Viewbox feature contains high-quality radiographs that depict various pathologies, as well as musculature and other anatomy that can’t be shown photographically.

Three Dimensional Simulation Of Quantitative Ultrasound In Cancellous Bone Using The Echographic Response Of A Metallic Pin

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1051937303
Genre :
File Size : 22. 41 MB
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Degenerative discopathy is a common pathology that may require spine surgery. A metallic cylindrical pin is inserted into the vertebral body to maintain soft tissues and may be used as a reflector of ultrasonic wave to estimate bone density. The first aim of this paper is to validate a three-dimensional (3-D) model to simulate the ultrasonic propagation in a trabecular bone sample in which a metallic pin has been inserted. We also aim at determining the effect of changes of bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and of positioning errors on the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in this specific configuration. The approach consists in coupling finite-difference time-domain simulation with X-ray microcomputed tomography. The correlation coefficient between experimental and simulated speed of sound (SOS)—respectively, broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA)—was equal to 0.90 (respectively, 0.55). The results show a significant correlation of SOS with BV/TV (R = 0.82), while BUA values exhibit a nonlinear behavior versus BV/TV. The orientation of the pin should be controlled with an accuracy of around 1° to obtain accurate results. The results indicate that using the ultrasonic wave reflected by a pin has a potential to estimate the bone density. SOS is more reliable than BUA due to its lower sensitivity to the tilt angle.

Radiology Of Osteoporosis

Author : Stephan Grampp
ISBN : 9783662052358
Genre : Medical
File Size : 25. 9 MB
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Due to the aging population in the Western world, osteoporosis has become a major problem which is of interest to several medical disciplines: not only radiologists but also gynecologists, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, and orthopedic surgeons are involved in the management of this widespread condition. Functional imaging is becoming rapidly an important area of diagnostic radiology. Imaging of osteoporosis is another application of this recent addition to the armory of radiology. It is important that radiologists should be fully aware of the range of diagnostic modalities-conventional radiologic methods, dual X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, quantitative ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, etc. -that are now available for the diagnosis and the follow-up of osteoporosis, and know how to apply these sophisticated methods in daily clinical practice. Dr. S. Grampp is a radiologist with a longstanding interest in osteoporosis, and his previous publications on this condition are internationally known. He has been very successful in engaging several outstandingly qualified experts to contribute to the indi vidual chapters of this superb book, which provides a omprehensive c overview of our current knowledge of osteoporosis. I am confident that this volume will meet with great interest from radiologists and all other clinicians involved in the care of patients with osteoporosis and will encounter the same success as many previous volumes in this series.

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