prisons crowding a psychological perspective research in criminology

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Prisons Crowding A Psychological Perspective

Author : Paul Paulus
ISBN : 9781461238126
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 34. 48 MB
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This volume is a summary of a 1S-year effort to determine the effects of prison crowding and their relationship to the broader realm of crowding phenomena and theories. Although the writing of this volume was for the most part a solitary effort, the data and ideas it is based on were mostly the result of a collaborative effort with Verne Cox and Garvin McCain. Their schedules limited their ability to contribute to this volume, but they provided much constructive feedback and assistance. Cox also wrote a preliminary draft of Chapter 3, and both McCain and Cox made major contributions to Chapter S and assisted with several other chapters. I am greatly indebted to these two fine scholars for their efforts and support over the course of our joint research endeavors. In recognition of this fact, the pronoun "we" is used throughout this volume. This research would not have been possible without the cooperation and support of thousands of inmates and hundreds of prison officials. The un conditional support throughout the project from Director Norman Carlson and former regional research director Jerome Mabli, both of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is also greatly appreciated. Thanks are due to the National Institute of Justice for financial support during various phases of this project. The support of John Spevacek of the Institute was indispens able. Funds were also provided by the Hogg Foundation, U. S. Department of Justice-Civil Rights Division, and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Psychological Criminology

Author : Richard Wortley
ISBN : 9781136652899
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 79. 46 MB
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Psychological Criminology addresses the question: what is it about individuals and their experiences that cause them to commit crime and/or to become criminal? This book provides a comprehensive coverage of psychological theories of crime and criminality, exploring theories focusing on factors present at birth (human nature, heredity); theories that focus on factors that influence the offender over the lifespan (learning, development); and theories focusing on factors present at the crime scene. It emphasizes the connections among the different approaches, and demonstrates how, taken together rather than as rival explanations, they provide a more complete picture of crime and criminality than each provides individually. Theories are arranged throughout the book in a temporal sequence, from distal to proximal causes of crime. The analysis spans 100,000 years, from the evolutionary roots of criminal behaviour in the ancestral environments of early humans on the African savana, to the decision to engage in a specific criminal act. Key features of the book include: a focus on theory – ‘explaining’ crime and criminality, an integrative approach, accessible to readers who do not have a background in psychology. Psychological Criminology highlights the contributions that psychological theory can make to the broader field of criminology; it will be of interest to students, academics, researchers and practitioners in both criminology and forensic psychology.

Environmental Criminology And Crime Analysis

Author : Richard Wortley
ISBN : 9781317487104
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60. 30 MB
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Environmental criminology is a term that encompasses a range of overlapping perspectives. At its core, the many strands of environmental criminology are bound by a common focus on the role that the immediate environment plays in the performance of crime, and a conviction that careful analyses of these environmental influences are the key to the effective investigation, control, and prevention of crime. This new edition brings together leading theorists and practitioners in the field to provide a comprehensive, integrative coverage of the field of environmental criminology and crime analysis. This book is divided into three sequential parts: • Understanding the crime event explores routine activity approach, crime pattern theory, the rational choice perspective, and situational precipitators of crime. • Analysing crime patterns discusses crime mapping, offender mobility, repeat victimisation, geographic profiling, and crime scripts. • Preventing and controlling crime covers topics including problem oriented policing, situational crime prevention, and environmental design. Fully updated and including new chapters on crime scripts and offender mobility, a scene-setting introductory overview, and critical thinking questions at the end of each chapter, this text is an essential and comprehensive resource for practitioners and students taking courses on environmental criminology, crime analysis, and crime prevention.

The Environmental Psychology Of Prisons And Jails

Author : Richard E. Wener
ISBN : 9780521452762
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 32. 42 MB
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"It is often a curious experience for me to lecture about design and behavior in correctional settings because of the different groups of people with different kinds of expertise who may be in the audience. When I am speaking to Criminal Justice/Corrections professionals some of the concepts I discuss are well known (such as the history of prisons, the direct supervision system of design and management, the nature of prison crowding and isolation) but much of the psychology, especially environmental psychology -- including research methodology, stress, post occupancy evaluation, personal space and territoriality, psychology of crowding -- is not. If I speak to psychologists just the opposite is true, and a meeting of architects presents a different set of competencies entirely. So it is with this book. Some topics will be well-known to corrections people, others to psychologists, and still different ones for designers. The hard part is always in figuring out which elements of familiarity can be assumed and which need deeper background. I hope that parts of this book will be of interest to all of those groups -- as well as others such as policy makers"--

Long Term Imprisonment

Author : Timothy J. Flanagan
ISBN : 9781452246949
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 71. 51 MB
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The use of long-term imprisonment as a response to crime, the effects of long-term incarceration and the strategies used by inmates to adjust to confinement are the focus of this volume. The book explores the prison experience from the male and the female perspective and discusses the correctional management challenges posed by long-term incarceration. Comprising a set of articles originally published in The Prison Journal the book is complemented by research reports, an analysis of long-term inmates confined in United States and Canadian prisons, and essays written by long-term prisoners.

Urban Crime Criminals And Victims

Author : Per-Olof H. Wikström
ISBN : 9781461390770
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 41. 91 MB
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Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth

Author : Marc Le Blanc
ISBN : 9781461235705
Genre : Medical
File Size : 48. 40 MB
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Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.

Prison Inc

Author : K.C. Carceral
ISBN : 081479954X
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 69. 81 MB
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In 1888, Leo Tolstoy mysteriously declared that sexual intercourse should no longer exist. Years later he would admit to being "horrified" by this pronouncement, but still remained an ardent believer in sexual abstinence. Frequenter of brothels in his youth, father of thirteen children by his wife and at least two children by peasant women before he was married, Tolstoy now had the audacity to suggest that people should stop having sex. How can such a repudiation be explained? Beginning with Tolstoy's Kreutzer Sonata-his first written "declaration of war on human sexuality"--Tolstoy on the Couch takes us on a sweeping psychoanalytic tour of Tolstoy's diaries and other private materials, revealing that behind his campaign for celibacy lay a painful and complicated drama of early childhood. Rooting Tolstoy's polarized feelings about women and sexuality in his uncontrollable rage toward the mother who died when he was a toddler, Rancour-Laferriere offers profound psychobiographic insights into Tolstoy's lifelong animosity toward women--and into the women he loved to hate.

The American Prison

Author : Lynne Goodstein
ISBN : 9781468456523
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 22. 52 MB
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Despite the dire forecasts of others who had themselves edited books, we proceeded with the project of an edited volume on the American prison, although with more than a little trepidation. We had heard the horror stories of authors turning in their chapters months or years late or never at all, of publishers delaying publication dates, of volumes that read more like patchwork quilts than finely loomed cloth. As if to prove the others wrong, our experience in editing this volume has been mar velous, and we think the volume reflects this. Most likely, the success of our experience and of the volume stems from two elements: first, the professionalism and commitment of the authors themselves; and second, the fact that early in the life of this volume, most of the authors convened for a conference to critique and coordinate the chapters. This book brings together an illustrious group of criminologists and correctional scholars who wrote chapters explicitly for this volume. Co hesiveness was furthered by the charge we gave to each author to (1) present the major issues, (2) review the empirical research, and (3) dis cuss the implications of this work for present and future correctional policy. The goal of this project was to examine the major correctional issues facing prison systems. The chapters scrutinize the issues from the perspective of the system and the individual, from theory to practical and daily management problems, from legal to psychological concerns.

Deaths In Custody

Author : Alison Liebling
ISBN : UOM:39015032287065
Genre : Law
File Size : 37. 11 MB
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This book attempts to develop a recognition of the scale of the problem of prison suicide internationally, and to set in the context of the prison as an institution. The sequel to this book, "Deaths in Custody: Caring for people at risk" is, also published by Whiting and Birch.

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