principles of systems science understanding complex systems

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Principles Of Systems Science

Author : George E Mobus
ISBN : 9781493919208
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 49 MB
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This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving

Open Systems Science

Author : Mario Tokoro
ISBN : 9781607504689
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 21 MB
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Open systems science is the methodology employed to manage and solve the problems in systems whose operation involves interaction with the outside world, as opposed to being closed and complete within themselves. This new methodology was first announced at the 20th anniversary symposium of Sony CSL in 2008. Falling outside the direct scope of traditional science, an open system usually consists of multiple subsystems with varying numbers, relations and functions. Throughout the last decades, computer scientists, addressing the problems presented by globalization and the massive expansion in the application of new technologies, began to realize that open systems science could provide some of the solutions they were seeking with regard to complex and dependable systems. Starting with a chapter explaining the basic concept of open systems science, this book goes on to present the work of contributors from a variety of different disciplines, who explain how open systems science can be applied to their field. Including topics such as; biological robustness, the application of open systems methods to develop new drugs, the study of language and meaning, the interdisciplinary field of visual computing and user interfaces as the merger between the real and virtual world, this book explores the directions of science and technology in the 21st century and will be of interest to all those involved in the development and operation of complex interactive systems. IOS Press is an international science, technical and medical publisher of high-quality books for academics, scientists, and professionals in all fields. Some of the areas we publish in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and information systems -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All aspects of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The knowledge economy -Urban studies -Arms control -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences

Philosophy Of Complex Systems

Author :
ISBN : 0080931227
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 79. 75 MB
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Complexity And Postmodernism

Author : Paul Cilliers
ISBN : 9781134743308
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 67. 35 MB
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In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.

Drift Into Failure

Author : Sidney Dekker
ISBN : 9781351942911
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 34. 29 MB
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What does the collapse of sub-prime lending have in common with a broken jackscrew in an airliner’s tailplane? Or the oil spill disaster in the Gulf of Mexico with the burn-up of Space Shuttle Columbia? These were systems that drifted into failure. While pursuing success in a dynamic, complex environment with limited resources and multiple goal conflicts, a succession of small, everyday decisions eventually produced breakdowns on a massive scale. We have trouble grasping the complexity and normality that gives rise to such large events. We hunt for broken parts, fixable properties, people we can hold accountable. Our analyses of complex system breakdowns remain depressingly linear, depressingly componential - imprisoned in the space of ideas once defined by Newton and Descartes. The growth of complexity in society has outpaced our understanding of how complex systems work and fail. Our technologies have gotten ahead of our theories. We are able to build things - deep-sea oil rigs, jackscrews, collateralized debt obligations - whose properties we understand in isolation. But in competitive, regulated societies, their connections proliferate, their interactions and interdependencies multiply, their complexities mushroom. This book explores complexity theory and systems thinking to understand better how complex systems drift into failure. It studies sensitive dependence on initial conditions, unruly technology, tipping points, diversity - and finds that failure emerges opportunistically, non-randomly, from the very webs of relationships that breed success and that are supposed to protect organizations from disaster. It develops a vocabulary that allows us to harness complexity and find new ways of managing drift.

Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics

Author : William S. Yackinous
ISBN : 9780128020630
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 49 MB
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Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics: A Systems and Engineering Perspective takes a fresh, interdisciplinary perspective on complex system dynamics, beginning with a discussion of relevant systems and engineering skills and practices, including an explanation of the systems approach and its major elements. From this perspective, the author formulates an ecosystem dynamics functionality-based framework to guide ecological investigations. Next, because complex system theory (across many subject matter areas) is crucial to the work of this book, relevant network theory, nonlinear dynamics theory, cellular automata theory, and roughness (fractal) theory is covered in some detail. This material serves as an important resource as the book proceeds. In the context of all of the foregoing discussion and investigation, a view of the characteristics of ecological network dynamics is constructed. This view, in turn, is the basis for the central hypothesis of the book, i.e., ecological networks are ever-changing networks with propagation dynamics that are punctuated, local-to-global, and perhaps most importantly fractal. To analyze and fully test this hypothesis, an innovative ecological network dynamics model is defined, designed, and developed. The modeling approach, which seeks to emulate features of real-world ecological networks, does not make a priori assumptions about ecological network dynamics, but rather lets the dynamics develop as the model simulation runs. Model analysis results corroborate the central hypothesis. Additional important insights and principles are suggested by the model analysis results and by the other supporting investigations of this book – and can serve as a basis for going-forward complex system dynamics research, not only for ecological systems but for complex systems in general. Provides a fresh interdisciplinary perspective, offers a broad integrated development, and contains many new ideas Clearly explains the elements of the systems approach and applies them throughout the book Takes on the challenging and open issues of complex system network dynamics Develops and utilizes a new, innovative ecosystem dynamics modeling approach Contains over 135 graphic illustrations to help the reader visualize and understand important concepts

Constructal Law And The Unifying Principle Of Design

Author : Luiz Rocha
ISBN : 9781461450498
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59. 78 MB
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Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security. The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum flow resistance, and also explains the designs that are observed and copied in biomimetics. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design covers the fundamentals of Constructal Theory and Design, as well as presenting a variety of state-of-the-art applications. Experts from the biological, physical and social sciences demonstrate the unification of all design phenomena in nature, and apply this knowledge to novel designs in modern engineering, such as vascularization for self-healing and self-cooling materials for aircraft, and tree fins and cavities for heat transfer enhancement.

Control Of Complex Systems

Author : Kyriakos Vamvoudakis
ISBN : 9780128054376
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 43 MB
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In the era of cyber-physical systems, the area of control of complex systems has grown to be one of the hardest in terms of algorithmic design techniques and analytical tools. The 23 chapters, written by international specialists in the field, cover a variety of interests within the broader field of learning, adaptation, optimization and networked control. The editors have grouped these into the following 5 sections: “Introduction and Background on Control Theory”, “Adaptive Control and Neuroscience”, “Adaptive Learning Algorithms”, “Cyber-Physical Systems and Cooperative Control”, “Applications”. The diversity of the research presented gives the reader a unique opportunity to explore a comprehensive overview of a field of great interest to control and system theorists. This book is intended for researchers and control engineers in machine learning, adaptive control, optimization and automatic control systems, including Electrical Engineers, Computer Science Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Aerospace/Automotive Engineers, and Industrial Engineers. It could be used as a text or reference for advanced courses in complex control systems. • Collection of chapters from several well-known professors and researchers that will showcase their recent work • Presents different state-of-the-art control approaches and theory for complex systems • Gives algorithms that take into consideration the presence of modelling uncertainties, the unavailability of the model, the possibility of cooperative/non-cooperative goals and malicious attacks compromising the security of networked teams • Real system examples and figures throughout, make ideas concrete Includes chapters from several well-known professors and researchers that showcases their recent work Presents different state-of-the-art control approaches and theory for complex systems Explores the presence of modelling uncertainties, the unavailability of the model, the possibility of cooperative/non-cooperative goals, and malicious attacks compromising the security of networked teams Serves as a helpful reference for researchers and control engineers working with machine learning, adaptive control, and automatic control systems

Entropy Principle For The Development Of Complex Biotic Systems

Author : Ichiro Aoki
ISBN : 9780123944047
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 74 MB
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The concept of entropy in thermodynamics is a complex one, though it is fundamental in understanding physics, the workings of the mind, and biology. Entropy is the measure of the quality of energy, and it can also refer to the turn from order to disorder or randomness in isolated systems. In open systems, such as biology, entropy is formulated in terms of production and energy flow. This book establishes a novel view of complex biological systems and the earth using this concept of entropy, encompassing the interdisciplinary area of biology, ecology and physics. This book considers the development over time of a range of biologically complex systems such as plants, animals, humans, and ecosystems, describing them in terms of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy. With its broad coverage of biological systems, this book will be useful for students of environmental science as well as students in biology and physics. Includes discussion of multiple complex systems including the earth and biological systems within it. Suitable for those with little physics background who wish to learn how the laws of physics apply to ecological systems. Clearly organized by system, making information easy to access.

Architecture And Principles Of Systems Engineering

Author : Charles Dickerson
ISBN : 1420072544
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 75. 79 MB
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The rapid evolution of technical capabilities in the systems engineering (SE) community requires constant clarification of how to answer the following questions: What is Systems Architecture? How does it relate to Systems Engineering? What is the role of a Systems Architect? How should Systems Architecture be practiced? A perpetual reassessment of concepts and practices is taking place across various systems disciplines at every level in the SE community. Architecture and Principles of Systems Engineering addresses these integral issues and prepares you for changes that will be occurring for years to come. With their simplified discussion of SE, the authors avoid an overly broad analysis of concepts and terminology. Applying their substantial experience in the academic, government, and commercial R&D sectors, this book is organized into detailed sections on: Foundations of Architecture and Systems Engineering Modeling Languages, Frameworks, and Graphical Tools Using Architecture Models in Systems Analysis and Design Aerospace and Defense Systems Engineering Describing ways to improve methods of reasoning and thinking about architecture and systems, the text integrates concepts, standards, and terminologies that embody emerging model-based approaches but remain rooted in the long-standing practices of engineering, science, and mathematics. With an emphasis on maintaining conceptual integrity in system design, this text describes succinct practical approaches that can be applied to the vast array of issues that readers must resolve on a regular basis. An exploration of the important questions above, this book presents the authors’ invaluable experience and insights regarding the path to the future, based on what they have seen work through the power of model-based approaches to architecture and systems engineering.

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