principles of scientific methods

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Principles Of Scientific Methods

Author : Mark Chang
ISBN : 9781482238105
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 52. 88 MB
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Principles of Scientific Methods focuses on the fundamental principles behind scientific methods. The book refers to "science" in a broad sense, including natural science, physics, mathematics, statistics, social science, political science, and engineering science. A principle is often abstract and has broad applicability while a method is usually concrete and specific. The author uses many concrete examples to explain principles and presents analogies to connect different methods or problems to arrive at a general principle or a common notion. He mainly discusses a particular method to address the great idea behind the method, not the method itself. The book shows how the principles are not only applicable to scientific research but also to our daily lives. The author explains how scientific methods are used for understanding how and why things happen, making predictions, and learning how to prevent mistakes and solve problems. Studying the principles of scientific methods is to think about thinking and to enlighten our understanding of scientific research. Scientific principles are the foundation of scientific methods. In this book, you’ll see how the principles reveal the big ideas behind our scientific discoveries and reflect the fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of scientists. The principles make the scientific methods coherent and constitute the source of creativity.

The Principles Of Science

Author : William Stanley Jevons
ISBN : HARVARD:32044009961798
Genre : Logic
File Size : 31. 50 MB
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Teleology First Principles And Scientific Method In Aristotle S Biology

Author : Allan Gotthelf
ISBN : 9780199287956
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 69 MB
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This volume draws together Allan Gotthelf's pioneering work on Aristotle's biology. He examines Aristotle's natural teleology, the axiomatic structure of biological explanation, and the reliance on scientifically organized data in the three great works with which Aristotle laid the foundations of biological science.

Die Grunds Tze Wissenschaftlicher Betriebsf Hrung

Author : Frederick Winslow Taylor
ISBN : 9783861957133
Genre :
File Size : 41. 72 MB
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Fredericks W. Taylors Werk "Die Grunds tze wissenschaftlicher Betriebsf hrung" ist einer der wichtigsten betriebswirtschaftlichen Klassiker. Das Buch von Taylor (1856-1915) begr ndet den Taylorismus, der den richtigen Bewegungsablauf aus umfangreichen Zeit- und Arbeitsstudien ermittelte. Taylor untersuchte als Inginieur verschiedene Unternehmen und bewirkte in diesen Branchen deutliche Verbesserungen.

Scientific Method In Practice

Author : Hugh G. Gauch
ISBN : 0521017084
Genre : Science
File Size : 61. 91 MB
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This book will enable scientists to be better scientists by offering them a deeper understanding of the scientific method.

The Scientific Approach

Author : Carlo L. Lastrucci
ISBN : OCLC:53226775
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 58 MB
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Theories Of Scientific Method

Author : Robert Nola
ISBN : 9781317493495
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 35. 63 MB
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What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.

Scientific Method In Brief

Author : Hugh G. Gauch, Jr
ISBN : 9781107311527
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 40 MB
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The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy and law. Informed by position papers on science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation, this book aligns with a distinctively mainstream vision of science. It is an ideal resource for anyone undertaking a systematic study of scientific method for the first time, from undergraduates to professionals in both the sciences and the humanities.

Principles Of Scientific Sociology

Author : Walter L. Wallace
ISBN : 0202368203
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 87. 21 MB
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Principles of Scientific Sociology represents a major attempt to redirect the course of contemporary sociological thought. It is clear, well-organized, innovative, and original in its discussion of the context and methods of sociology conceived as a natural science. Wallace delineates the subject matter of sociology, classifies its variables, presents a logic of inquiry, and advocates the use of this logic for the acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories and for the solving of human problems. Social scientists, including political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, economists, social psychologists, and students of social phenomena among nonhumans, will find this work indispensable reading. Principles of Scientifc Sociology emphasizes the relationship between pure and applied sociological analysis. The essential contributions of each to the other are specified. Relationships between the substantive concepts of the sociology of humans, on the one hand, and the sociology of nonhumans, on the other, are systematized. In an attempt to put sociological analysis on a firm scientific basis, the book contains a concluding chapter focusing on central premises of natural science and their applicability to sociology. Wallace identifies the simple elements and relationships that sociological analysis requires if it is to lead to an understanding of complex social phenomena. On this basis, he considers the substantive elements and relations that comprise structural functionalism, historical materialism, symbolic interactionism, and other approaches to social data. He develops groundwork for standardizing these elements so that the contexts of different analyses may become rigorously comparable. The result is a fine, one-volume synthesis of sociological theory.

Principles And Methods Of Social Research

Author : William D. Crano
ISBN : 9781135646110
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 65. 75 MB
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An extensive revision, this classic text presents the most recent advances in social research design and methodology. The authors thoroughly describe the research process using methods derived from basic principles of scientific inquiry and demonstrate how they apply to the study of human behavior. These applications make it an indispensable resource for all fields of human social research, particularly communication, psychology, public health, and marketing. With a heavy emphasis on reliability and validity, the book considers experimental, quasi-experimental, and survey research designs in light of these qualities. Principles and Methods of Social Research is noted for its: *emphasis on understanding the principles that govern the use of a method to facilitate the researcher's choice of the proper methodological approach; *use of the laboratory experiment as a point of reference for describing and evaluating field experiments, correlational designs, quasi-experiments, and survey designs; and *unique chapter on the ethics of social research including the power a researcher wields and tips on how to use it responsibly. Highlights of the thoroughly expanded and updated edition include: *new chapters on meta-analysis and social cognition methods; * the latest on experimental operations and procedures, such as implicit measures, simulations, and Internet experiments; * expanded coverage of conducting experiments outside of the lab, including conducting experiments on the Web and on applied evaluation research methods, including efficacy and effectiveness research. Intended as a text for upper-level and graduate courses in research methods in social psychology, the social sciences, communications, and public health research. No previous methods courses are required.

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