principles of electrical measurement series in sensors

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Principles Of Electrical Measurement

Author : Slawomir Tumanski
ISBN : 0203961838
Genre : Science
File Size : 60. 61 MB
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The field of electrical measurement continues to grow, with new techniques developed each year. From the basic thermocouple to cutting-edge virtual instrumentation, it is also becoming an increasingly "digital" endeavor. Books that attempt to capture the state-of-the-art in electrical measurement are quickly outdated. Recognizing the need for a text devoted to the major areas underlying modern electrical measurement, Slawomir Tumanski developed Principles of Electrical Measurement. This text builds a solid foundation in the necessary background concepts and fundamentals needed to develop and use modern electrical instruments. The author first introduces the fundamentals-including main terms and definitions, methods of estimating accuracy and uncertainty, and standards of electrical quantities-and the classical methods of measurement. He then delves into data acquisition, signal conditioning, and signal processing for both analog and digital signals. The final chapter examines computer measuring systems and virtual measurement techniques. By focusing on the aspects that are common to all types of electrical measurement, the book ensures a solid understanding that can be easily applied in practice. Whether used as an introduction to the field or as a reference to the essential concepts, Principles of Electrical Measurement provides the knowledge necessary to develop measurement solutions for any application.

Electrical Impedance

Author : Luca Callegaro
ISBN : 9781439849101
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29. 62 MB
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Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement, and Applications provides a modern and much-needed overview of electrical impedance measurement science and its application in metrology, sensor reading, device and material characterizations. It presents up-to-date coverage of the theory, practical methods, and modeling. The author covers the main impedance measurement techniques, stressing their practical application. The book includes a large set of measurement setup schematics, and diagrams and photos of standards and devices. It also offers an extensive list of references to both historical and recent papers on devices, methods, and traceability issues. Reviews the main definitions of the quantities related to impedance, some theorems of particular interest, the issue of impedance representation, and introduces the problem of impedance definition Lists devices, appliances, circuits, and instruments employed as building blocks of impedance measurement setups Classifies the main impedance measurement methods, including details on their implementation when a specific impedance definition is chosen Discusses the increasing use of mixed-signal electronics in impedance measurement setups Covers applications including details on the measurement of electromagnetic properties of materials Introduces impedance metrology, including artifact impedance standards, and the realization and reproduction of SI impedance units

Optochemical Nanosensors

Author : Andrea Cusano
ISBN : 9781439854907
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 37. 32 MB
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Nanosized sensors enable the study of chemical and biochemical processes at a level and in dimensions that may not have been envisioned some 20 years ago. Fueled by their inherent small size and the unusual optical, magnetic, catalytic, and mechanical properties of nanoparticles, remarkable progress has been made in recent years in the development and utilization of nanosensors and optical nanotechnology will further widen the field. However, the design of new sensors requires new materials, new methods for their characterization, new optical sensing schemes, new approaches for creating nanosized structures, and new techniques for their interrogation in complex environments such as small living cells for studying biological signals or big public spaces for environmental monitoring . Optochemical Nanosensors covers the rapidly growing field of optical chemical nanosensing, a new and exciting area of research and development within the large field of optical chemical sensing and biosensing. Its many applications, including the detection of bioterrorist threats, food security, virology, explosive detection and more, are covered in these self-contained yet interrelated chapters. The book reviews optochemical sensors, starting from the basics in optoelectronicsand concluding with the presentation of diverse nanosensors. The authors offer insight into future trends in this growing field and present applications in the fields of medicine, security, and bioterrorism.

Semiconductor X Ray Detectors

Author : B. G. Lowe
ISBN : 9781466554016
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 53. 29 MB
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Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detectors, an important supplement to the knowledge now required to achieve full understanding of the workings of SDDs, CCDs, and Compound Semiconductor Detectors. The book provides an up-to-date review of the principles, practical applications, and state of the art of semiconductor x-ray detectors. It describes many of the facets of x-ray detection and measurement using semiconductors, from manufacture to implementation. The initial chapters present a self-contained summary of relevant background physics, materials science, and engineering aspects. Later chapters compare and contrast the assembly and physical properties of systems and materials currently employed, enabling readers to fully understand the materials and scope for applications.

Principles Of Chemical Sensors

Author : Jiri Janata
ISBN : 0306431831
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 9 MB
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viii The danger is that the result so obtained may be an experimental artifact. Another approach is to examine in as much detail as possible the principles underlying the operation of a new device. This may not lead to a new sensor immediately, but those developed along these lines tend to be more reliable. The accent in this book is therefore on the principles behind the operation ("the trade") rather than on a description of applications ("the tricks of the trade") of individual sensors. In this respect it is written for students at both graduate and upper undergraduate levels. Approximately one semester's worth of material is presented. The book may also be useful for scientists and engineers involved in the development of new types of chemical sensors or for those who discover that "somebody else's sensor just does not work as it should" and wish to know why. The book is divided into five sections dealing with the four principal modes of transduction: thermal, mass, electrochemical, and optical, as well as a general introduction common to the four types. I have included five appendixes, which are intended as a quick reference for readers who may not possess sufficient background in some areas covered in the main text. I have run out of symbols in both the Latin and Greek alphabets. In order to avoid confusion and ambiguity I have confined the use of a set of symbols to each chapter and provided glossaries at the end of each chapter.

Principles Of Measurement Systems

Author : John P. Bentley
ISBN : 0130430285
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 66 MB
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Measurement is an essential activity in every branch of technology and science, the fourth edition of this successful text has been extensively extended and updated to include new developments in measurement devices and technology. Principles of Measurement Systems, 4/e provides a coherent and integrated approach to the topic, covering the main techniques and devices used, together with relevant theory applications, for both mechanical and electronic systems.

The Measurement Instrumentation And Sensors

Author : John G. Webster
ISBN : 3540648305
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36. 53 MB
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This detailed handbook describes current uses of instruments and techniques for practical measurements, including essential mathematical treatment to discover applications and solve problems. It reflects the tremendous changes and rapid advances in electronic communication, fibre optics and imaging technologies.

Measurement And Instrumentation Principles

Author : Alan S Morris
ISBN : 9780080496481
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40. 49 MB
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'Measurement and Instrumentation Principles' is the latest edition of a successful book that introduces undergraduate students to the measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments that are used for measuring physical variables. Completely updated to include new technologies such as smart sensors, displays and interfaces, the 3rd edition also contains plenty of worked examples and self-assessment questions (and solutions). In addition, a new chapter on safety issues focuses on the legal framework, electrical safety and failsafe designs, and the author has also concentrated on RF and optical wireless communications. Fully up-to-date and comprehensively written, this textbook is essential for all engineering undergraduates, especially those in the first two years of their course. Completely updated Includes new technologies such as smart sensors and displays

Principles And Methods Of Temperature Measurement

Author : Thomas Donald McGee
ISBN : 0471627674
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 7 MB
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The concept of temperature. The thermodynamic temperature scale. Entropy, temperature and statistical mechanics. The international practical temperature scale. General characteristics of temperature measuring devices and treatment of data. Liquid-in-glass thermometers. Sealed liquid or gas sensing instruments and bimetallic sensors. Electrical resistance temperature measurement using metallic sensors. Thermistors and semiconductors for temperature measurement. Thermoelectric temperature measurement. Theory of radiant heat transfer as a basis for temperature measurement bu radiant techniques. The disappearing filament optical pyrometer. Photoelectric optical pyrometers (automatic and infrared). Total radiation pyrometers. Novel methods of temperature measurement. Pyrometric cones. Calibration methods. Installation effects. Dynamic response of sensors. Temperature instrumentation and control. Thermocouple reference tables.

Electrical Measurements

Author : A.V.Bakshi U.A.Bakshi
ISBN : 8184312644
Genre :
File Size : 84. 97 MB
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Units and DimensionsReview of fundamental and derived units. S.I. units. Dimensional equations, Problems.Measurement of Resistance, Inductance, and CapacitanceWheatstone's bridge - Sensitivity analysis, Limitations, Kelvin's double bridge. Earth resistance measurement using Megger. Measurement of earth resistance by fall of potential method, Anderson's bridge, Schering bridge, Sources and detectors, Shielding of bridges, Problems. Extension of Instrument RangesShunts and multipliers. Construction and theory of instrument transformers. Equations for ratio and phase angle errors of C.T. and P.T. Turns compensation, illustrative examples.Measurement of Power and Related ParametersDynamometer wattmeter. LPF wattmeter. Measurement of real and reactive power in three phase circuits. Induction type energy meter - construction, theory, errors, adjustments and calibration. Principle of working of electronic energy meter.Construction and operation of electro-dynamometer single-phase power factor meter. Weston frequency meter and phase sequence indicator.Electronic InstrumentsTrue RMS responding voltmeter, Electronic multimeters, Digital voltmeters, Q meter. Dual trace oscilloscope - front panel details of a typical dual trace oscilloscope. Method of measuring amplitude, phase, frequency, period. Use of Lissajous patterns. Working of a digital storage oscilloscope.TransducersClassification and selection of transducers, Strain gauges, LVDT. Temperature measurements. Photoconductive and photo-voltaic cells. Interfacing resistive transducers to electronic circuits. Introduction to data acquisition systems.Display Devices and Signal GeneratorsX-Y recorders, Nixie tubes LCD and LED displays, Signal generators and function generators.

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