primates pathogens and evolution

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Primates Pathogens And Evolution

Author : Jessica F. Brinkworth
ISBN : 9781461471813
Genre : Science
File Size : 88. 95 MB
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The immune systems of human and non-human primates have diverged over time, such that some species differ considerably in their susceptibility, symptoms, and survival of particular infectious diseases. Variation in primate immunity is such that major human pathogens - such as immunodeficiency viruses, herpesviruses and malaria-inducing species of Plasmodium - elicit striking differences in immune response between closely related species and within primate populations. These differences in immunity are the outcome of complex evolutionary processes that include interactions between the host, its pathogens and symbiont/commensal organisms. The success of some pathogens in establishing persistent infections in humans and other primates has been determined not just by the molecular evolution of the pathogen and its interactions with the host, but also by the evolution of primate behavior and ecology, microflora, immune factors and the evolution of other biological systems. To explore how interactions between primates and their pathogens have shaped their mutual molecular evolution, Primates, Pathogens and Evolution brings together research that explores comparative primate immune function, the emergence of major and neglected primate diseases, primate-microorganism molecular interactions, and related topics. This book will be of interest to anyone curious as to why infectious diseases manifest differently in humans and their closest relatives. It will be of particular interest to scholars specializing in human and non-human primate evolution, epidemiology and immunology, and disease ecology. Primates, Pathogens and Evolution offers an overview and discussion of current findings on differences in the molecular mechanics of primate immune response, as well as on pathogen-mediated primate evolution and human and non-human primate health.

The Nonhuman Primate In Nonclinical Drug Development And Safety Assessment

Author : Joerg Bluemel
ISBN : 9780124171466
Genre : Medical
File Size : 20. 23 MB
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The Nonhuman Primate in Drug Development and Safety Assessment is a valuable reference dedicated to compiling the latest research on nonhuman primate models in nonclinical safety assessment, regulatory toxicity testing and translational science. By covering important topics such as study planning and conduct, inter-species genetic drift, pathophysiology, animal welfare legislation, safety assessment of biologics and small molecules, immunotoxicology and much more, this book provides scientific and technical insights to help you safely and successfully use nonhuman primates in pharmaceutical toxicity testing. A comprehensive yet practical guide, this book is intended for new researchers or practicing toxicologists, toxicologic pathologists and pharmaceutical scientists working with nonhuman primates, as well as graduate students preparing for careers in this area. Covers important topics such as species selection, study design, experimental methodologies, animal welfare and the 3Rs (Replace, Refine and Reduce), social housing, regulatory guidelines, comparative physiology, reproductive biology, genetic polymorphisms and more Includes practical examples on techniques and methods to guide your daily practice Offers a companion website with high-quality color illustrations, reference values for safety assessment and additional practical information such as study design considerations, techniques and procedures and dosing and sampling volumes

The International Encyclopedia Of Primatology 3 Volume Set

Author : AgustÃn Fuentes
ISBN : 9780470673379
Genre : Science
File Size : 53. 1 MB
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The International Encyclopedia of Primatology represents the first comprehensive encyclopedic reference focusing on the behaviour, biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, and taxonomy of human and non-human primates. Represents the first comprehensive encyclopedic reference relating to primatology Features more than 450 entries covering topics ranging from the taxonomy, history, behaviour, ecology, captive management and diseases of primates to their use in research, cognition, conservation, and representations in literature Includes coverage of the basic scientific concepts that underlie each topic, along with the latest advances in the field Highly accessible to undergraduate and graduate students in primatology, anthropology, and the medical, biological and zoological sciences Essential reference for academics, researchers and commercial and conservation organizations This work is also available as an online resource at

Infectious Diseases In Primates

Author : Charles L. Nunn
ISBN : 0198565852
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 77 MB
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Recent progress in the field of wildlife disease ecology demonstrates that infectious disease plays a crucial role in the lives of wild animals. Parasites and pathogens should be especially important for social animals in which high contact among individuals increases the potential for disease spread. As one of the best studied mammalian groups, primates offer a unique opportunity to examine how complex behaviours (including social organization) influence the risk of acquiring infectiousdiseases, and the defences used by animals to avoid infection. This book explores the correlates of disease risk in primates, including not only social and mating behaviour but also diet, habitat use, life history, geography and phylogeny. The authors examine how a core set of host and parasite traits influence patterns of parasitism at three levels of biological organization: among individuals, among populations, and across species. A major goal is to synthesize, for the first time, fourdisparate areas of research: primate behavioural ecology, parasite biology, wildlife epidemiology, and the behavioural and immune defences employed by animals to counter infectious disease. Throughout, the authors provide an overview of the remarkable diversity of infectious agents found in wild primate populations. Additional chapters consider how knowledge of infectious diseases in wild primates can inform efforts focused on primate conservation and human health. More generally, this book identifies infectious disease as an important frontier in our understanding of primate behaviour and ecology. It highlights future challenges for testing the links between host and parasite traits, including hypotheses for the effects of disease on primate social and mating systems.

Infectious Disease And Host Pathogen Evolution

Author : Krishna R. Dronamraju
ISBN : 1139451693
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 39 MB
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This book, originally published in 2004, is concerned with the links between human evolution and infectious disease. It has long been recognised that an important factor in human evolution has been the struggle against infectious disease and, more recently, it was revealed that complex genetic polymorphisms are the direct result of that struggle. As molecular biological techniques become more sophisticated, a number of breakthroughs in the area of host-pathogen evolution led to an increased interest in this field. From the historical beginnings of J. B. S. Haldane's original hypothesis to more recent research, this book strives to evaluate infectious diseases from an evolutionary perspective. It provides a survey of information regarding host-pathogen evolution related to major infectious diseases and parasitic infections, including malaria, influenza and leishmaniasis. Written by leading authorities in the field, and edited by a former pupil of Haldane, Infectious Disease and Host-Pathogen Evolution will be valuable for those working in related areas of microbiology, parasitology, immunology and infectious disease medicine, as well as genetics, evolutionary biology and epidemiology.

Molecular Biology And Evolution Of Blood Group And Mhc Antigens In Primates

Author : Antoine Blancher
ISBN : 9783642590863
Genre : Medical
File Size : 73. 89 MB
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Zoologists have categorized primates into a single order, and no one doubts today that they share a common ancestry. Humans and Old and New World non human primate species, from the lemurs of Madagascar to the African anthro poid apes, represent diverging branches of an evolutionary common trunk. Along with species-specific characters, all primates have retained a number of ancestral traits, relics of their common origin. The comparative study of these species-specific and ancestral traits makes it possible to reconstruct the evolu tionary pathways of humans and nonhuman primates. The discovery of the human blood groups and, later, of the Major Histocom patibility Complex (MHC) had a seminal effect on the field of human genetics, providing the first sound examples of mendel ian polymorphisms. The use of blood group and MHC alleles as genetic markers in biological anthropology gen erated a conceptual revolution and persuaded researchers to begin to think in terms of populations and not only intems of typology. The counterparts of these human red and white cell antigens were found and studied in nunhuman primates, and progress in this field is summarized in this book.

Primate Behaviour And Social Ecology

Author : Hilary O. Box
ISBN : 9789400955387
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 18 MB
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One of the most obvious changes that has occurred in behavioural biology in recent years is that it has become conspicuously a problem orientated subject. Moreover, one of the most impor tant consequences of this has been to stimulate interdisciplinary links between evolutionary biology, zoology, ecology, anthro pology and psychology. The time is now right to ask questions which relate whole animals in the contexts of their ecosystems, with their social behaviour and development, with their perceptual and cog nitive capacities. These are new ways of looking at old problems, but we are still at the stage of finding out what kinds of questions to ask. For several years now I have been involved in teaching behavioural biology to students of psychology as well as zoology, and have greatly appreciated the opportunity to relate material across many different subject areas. It is the interfacing of prob lems, as in ecology and psychology for example, that makes 'more sense' of topics such as 'intelligence', responses to 'novelty', feeding strategies and socialleaming. The aim of the book is to provide readily digestible information in a number of areas of current interest in behavioural biology. Above all, it is intended to provide a basis for discussion and further inquiry.

An Unnatural History Of Emerging Infections

Author : Ron Barrett
ISBN : 9780191507151
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 40 MB
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This book traces the social and environmental determinants of human infectious diseases from the Neolithic to the present day. Despite recent high profile discoveries of new pathogens, the major determinants of these emerging infections are ancient and recurring. These include changing modes of subsistence, shifting populations, environmental disruptions, and social inequalities. The recent labeling of the term "re-emerging infections" reflects a re-emergence, not so much of the diseases themselves, but rather a re-emerging awareness in affluent societies of long-standing problems that were previously ignored. An Unnatural History of Emerging Infections illustrates these recurring problems and determinants through an examination of three major epidemiological transitions. The First Transition occurred with the Agricultural Revolution beginning 10,000 years ago, bringing a rise in acute infections as the main cause of human mortality. The Second Transition first began with the Industrial Revolution; it saw a decline in infectious disease mortality and an increase in chronic diseases among wealthier nations, but less so in poorer societies. These culminated in today's "worst of both worlds syndrome" in which globalization has combined with the challenges of the First and Second Transitions to produce a Third Transition, characterized by a confluence of acute and chronic disease patterns within a single global disease ecology. This accessible text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate level students and researchers in the fields of epidemiology, disease ecology, anthropology, health sciences, and the history of medicine. It will also be of relevance and use to undergraduate students interested in the history and social dynamics of infectious diseases.

Lentivirus Infections New Insights For The Healthcare Professional 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464911736
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80. 26 MB
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Lentivirus Infections: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Lentivirus Infections in a compact format. The editors have built Lentivirus Infections: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Lentivirus Infections in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Lentivirus Infections: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at

Evolutionary Aspects Of Nutrition And Health

Author : Artemis P. Simopoulos
ISBN : 9783805568272
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 94 MB
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The issues treated in this publication are brought together in this way for the first time. For many of the chronic diseases, familial predispositions are well established, and there is good evidence for true genetic predisposition. When Homo erectus emerged 1.7 million years ago, humans existed as non-cereal-eating hunter-gatherers. It is on this basis that, according to the hypothesis of the 'carnivore connection', an insulin-resistant genotype evolved to provide survival and reproductive advantages to populations adapted to a high meat, low plant food (low carbohydrate) nutritional environment. Cereal became the major source of calories and protein in the human diet only about 10,000 years ago. Humankind has thus had little evolutionary experience to adapt to this new food type, maladaption being the consequence. Moreover, studies comparing energy expenditure in Western societies and during the Paleolithic period indicate a low level of physical activity not previously encountered in human history, a state to which humans are not genetically adapted. Together with the dietary changes, this has led to a modern environment in which a number of individuals are prone to chronic diseases, causing increases in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cancer and obesity. As a consequence, the lifestyle approach for the prevention and management of these diseases is essential, varying with national dietary patterns and national economy. This publication will be of special interest to physicians, geneticists, nutritionists, dieticians, anthropologists, food technologists, food-policy-makers and individuals interested in personal and family health.

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